|Year : 1971 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 67-70
Ocular injuries in childhood
RP Sarda, AS Mehrotra, PS Ratnawat, Kamla Adnani
Department of Ophthalmology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajsthan, India
R P Sarda
Department of Ophthalmology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajsthan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Sarda R P, Mehrotra A S, Ratnawat P S, Adnani K. Ocular injuries in childhood. Indian J Ophthalmol 1971;19:67-70
|How to cite this URL:|
Sarda R P, Mehrotra A S, Ratnawat P S, Adnani K. Ocular injuries in childhood. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1971 [cited 2020 Apr 8];19:67-70. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1971/19/2/67/34989
Ocular injuries in childhood is in itself an important subject. There are certain injuries which are seen in adults whereas others are more common in children. Playing some games like "Gilli danda" or on Dewali toying with fire crackers leads to a number of cases of eye injuries. Injury with bow and arrow or with pencil point or with sharp instruments or compasses. all these are seen in children of school going age. These lead from minor injury to cataract formation or even endophthalmitis if not taken care of early.
A great number of reports are available on various injuries in adults some including all ages, but for childhood injuries, as a separate entity, scanty literature is available (Cooper).
| Material and Methods|| |
The present study is based on our observations made on the Ophthalmic injuries to patients admitted in this hospital from July, 1968 to Nov. 1969., selecting only the cases upto 14 years of age (school going age group). A total of 22 such cases were sorted out from 48 cases of injury at all ages, admitted during this period. All cases of minor eye injuries like small corneal foreign bodies, abrasions of lid, conjunctival tear not requiring sutures and likewise are treated in out door only, and are therefore not included here, where as cases having perforating injuries, impacted foreign bodies or big tears where surgiacl intervention is required are admitted for observation and treatment.
| Observations|| |
Some of the observations made in this series are as tabulated below:-
| Discussion|| |
Trauma is more likely to affect the male population in the wage earning age group. children show a disproportionately high incidence of ocular injuries, and the damage sustained is often of a more serious nature (Sorsby).
Out of a total of 48 cases of major eye injuries seen in the last 1½ years in this hospital, 22 (47%) were children of school going age group. Practically similar percentage (40%) is reported by Malik et al  in the age group up to 15 years in their study of pattern of ocular injuries of all age groups. Holand  in a study of 2,309 eye injuries in a period of 11 years gave this percentage to be 21%, out of all injuries, and Kobar  (1965) placed childhood injury to 19% of all ocular injuries in his study of 1,024 cases upto 15 years of age. It is seen here that Indian data shows practically double percentage as compared to the advanced countries which is possible due to the type of games in children and lack of supervision of parents over children, in medium or low class families, which is responsible for the difference.
In children also, male sex predominates (77.3%) as it is recorded in the higher group, possibly because of more out door games played by male children viz. gillidanda, (an Indian outdoor game) etc. which are not common in female children.
Mode of injury and causative agents are also quite interesting.
There is slight difference, possibly, in rural and urban population. Injury by Gilli danda and bow and arrow are more common in rural population, whereas Dewali cracker-injuries and road side accidents are more common in urban population. Out of 6 cases of injury due to Dewali crakers, 2 lost the eye due to retained F.B., one of which is shown in [Figure - 1]. The other one had a round iron F.B. 1.5 cm. in diameter, splintered from a cracker which tore the sclera and ciliary body to enter the eye causing a phthysical eye. Sharp instruments like pin, kitchen knife etc. are also important as causative agents of eye injuries.
Cornea has the highest incidence (68.1%) of injury possibly due to the fact that it is the most exposed part of eye ball. Then come lens and iris in that sequence.
In 50%, cases there was no visual loss. These were the cases where either the lids were affected or there were corneal perforations at periphery, without any damage to lens.
Five eyes were lost due to posterior involvement in infection and in the other six, lens was damaged in various degrees to impair vision from 6/60 to F. C.
Some Interesting Features
Five eyes were lost out of which two were due to Dewali crackers (X-ray plate of one is shown). One case had blunt iron rod injury causing hyphaema and vitreous haemorrhage with small conjunctival tear. The blood got absorbed within 2 weeks but the case came about 1 month later with marked rise of tension, probably secondary glaucoma, due to blockage of angle of anterior chamber by blood cells. The lens was transparent and in position.
[Figure - 2] shows two wooden foreign bodies, 6.0 and 6.5 cm. X 1 cm. which entered by piercing the lid at the inner angle into the orbit. The eye ball was saved without any injury to it. The F. B.'s were taken out and lid was sutured.
| Summary and Conclusion|| |
Modes of ocular injury in childhood are reported. This gives an incidence of 45% of eye injuries at all ages. Dewali crackers are more dangerous to the extent that out of 5 eyes lost, three were due to this. Cornea shows highest incidence of involvement because it is the most exposed part of the eye ball. Incidence of childhood injuries in Indian reports are higher than those in advanced countries, due to differences in living habits.
| References|| |
COOPER, S. N.: Editorial on Ocular Injuries. J. All India Ophth. Soc. 16:1, 1968.
HOLLAND G.: Analysis of 2,309 injuries of the eye and lids. Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 145: 915, (1965). Taken from Ophth. Lit. 19: 416. (1965).
KOBOR, J.: Eye Injuries in Childhood Klin Mbl. Augenheilk. 146: 740, (1965). (Taken from Ophth. Lit. 19:1467, (1965).
MALIK, S. R. K., GUPTA, A. K. AND CHAUHAN, S.: A study on pattern of ocular injuries in Delhi. J. All India Ophth. Soc. 16178, 1968.
SORSBY, A.: Modern Ophthalmology Vol. III P. 392 Butterworth, London, 1964.
SHARDA R. P. SHARMA R. G., RATNAWAT P. S.: Eye, E. N. T. J. 49. 179, (1970).
[Figure - 1], [Figure - 2]
[Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4]