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   Table of Contents      
ARTICLES
Year : 1975  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 17-20

Prevalence of ocular lesions in a rural community


1 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, S.N. Medical College, Agra, India
2 Lecturer in Statistics and Demography, Obst. and Gynaecology, S.N. Medical College, Agra, India

Correspondence Address:
S K Mehrotra
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, S.N. Medical College, Agra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 1088551

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How to cite this article:
Mehrotra S K, Maheshwari B B. Prevalence of ocular lesions in a rural community. Indian J Ophthalmol 1975;23:17-20

How to cite this URL:
Mehrotra S K, Maheshwari B B. Prevalence of ocular lesions in a rural community. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1975 [cited 2020 Jun 1];23:17-20. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1975/23/4/17/31433

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Table 1

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Table 1

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Ocular diseases are responsible for partial or complete blindness. Amongst 10-15 million estimated blind in the world more than 7 milli­on are residing in rural areas[10] in India. In India trachoma often in association with con­juctivitis is responsible for about 60% of preventible blindness. In surveyed districts of Uttar Pradesh the incidence of ocular diseases was found to vary from 23.47 to 92.14 per cent and the prevalence of blindness was 1.02 per­cent of which 90.0 percent was preventable[4],[5].


  Material and Methods Top


The study was carried out in three randomly selected intensive service programme villages of the rural field training centre, Kalyanpur of Medical Col­lege, Kanpur. The door to door survey was carried out and the information was recorded on a predesigned schedule through questionnaire and clinical examina­tions of the eyes of the residents of these villages. Inspite of the repeated visits, 22.8 percent of the residents in these villages could not be contacted. Doubtful cases were screened by the ophthamalic surgeon of the college.


  Observations Top


It was observed that 76.1 percent residents had various ocular lesions in the sampled villages. The percentage prevalence of ocular lesions was maximum in village Khera while it was minimum in village Hora [Table - 1].

The village Khera residents are mostly illiterate and have low socio-economic status. The enviornmental sanitation is also compara­tively poorer than other studied villages.

The prevalence of various ocular lesions according to site and international classifi­cation[11] revealed the commonest ocular leisons to be refractive error (22.99%) followed by trachomatous scarring (16.36%) and follicles (11.02%). The average ocular leisons per case were 1.24 and the range being 1-3. 49.3 percent cases had trachmatous lesions, the active trachoma cases were 15.4 percent and healed trachoma cases were 33.9 percent.

57.0 percent cases were females. 49.1 per­cent cases were children upto 15 years of age. It was further observed that the female cases were correspondingly more than males in all the ages except infancy.

80.0 percent of the social class V persons had ocular lesions and the ocular lesion were least (3.9%) in social class I people. The maximum number of ocular cases (46.7%) were in social class V. Similarly for literacy status it was observed that majority of the cases were illiterates and as the literacy status goes up the number of cases decline [Table - 4]. Thus, the social class and literacy status were observed to be inversely related to the prevalance of ocular leisons.

It was also observed that 57.0 percent cases had been using common towel, 67.8 percent were using Kajal or Soorma in their eyes and 94.9 percent cases were washing their eyes daily with plain water. The kajal was usually applied by the mother by the same finger, usually ring or middle finger was used.

90.0 percent cases were aware regarding the ocular lesions either due to existing symptoms or disfigurement. However, only 25.2 percent cases were under allopathic treatment while another 29.6 percent were not taking any treat­ment and the remaining were under indigenous treatment.


  Discussion Top


Ocular lesions, although majority are pre­ventable but due to ignorance or carelessness of being not attended to, until it causes gross impairment of vision or even blindness. This study revealed that 76.1 percent population had one or more ocular lesion in their eyes. Mathur et al[3] also found ocular diseases in 61.1 percent surveyed population of a rural commu­nity of Jaipur, while Mehrey[4] found prevalence of ocular lesion in U.P. varying from 23.4 to 92.1 percent. Amongst the ocular lesions 49.3 percent cases were of trachoma followed by 22.9 percent cases of refractive error. Mathur et al [3] also found trachoma prevalence to be 44.2 percent in the surveyed population but refractive error was not taken into account. However, Krishnamurthy[2] found defective vi­sion in 15.1 percent school children of Madurai city and according to ICMR estimate (Trac­homa control project) amongst rural popula­tion 17.8 percent had impairment of vision. In this study active trachoma was observed in 15.4 Percent cases which is less than those quoted by Mathur et al.[9] and Winkler et al[9]., while the healed trachoma cases were more (33.9%). This may be due to the mass antibio­tics therapy in these intensive service prog­ramme villages.

The females were affected more than males which is in conformity of the findings of various workers[1],[3],[7],[9]. The children (1-15 yrs.) of both sexes were affected more than other age groups and there was declining trend as the age advances except above 55 years due to cataract. Statistically also the ocular lesions were not associated with age and sex (X 2=6.19; P > .05 for 7d.f.).

The socio-economic status and literacy was found to be inversely related to the prevalence of ocular lesions and both were found to be statistically high significant with the values X 2=17.17; P < .01; 4 d.f. and X 2=29.28, P < .01; 4 d.f: respectively which has also been ob­served particularly in trachoma by others[2],[3],[6]. Regarding the cleanliness of eyes although nearly 95.0 percent cases were washing their eyes regularly with water but due to common use of towel and application of eye cosmetics the prevalence was more. Though poor perso­nal hygiene has been mentioned for higher prevalance of trachoma by Taylor et al[6] and Mathur et al.[3] but Krishnamurthy[2] had found a fair number of cases in healthy and hygienic communities.


  Summary Top


Amongst surveyed population of rural field training centre, Kalyanpur, 76.1 percent cases had one or more ocular leisons. 49.3 percent had active or healed trachoma. Females were affected more. Children of 1-15 years were affected more. Socio-economic and literacy status was inversely related to prevalence of ocular lesions. Personal hygiene plays an important role in prevalence of ocular lesions.

 
  References Top

1.
Agarwal, L.P., Dhir, S.P., and Lamba, P.A. 1966 J. All India ophth. Soc. 14, 197.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Krishnamoorthy, R, 1966 J.All India Ophth. Soc. 14, 165.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mathur, G.M., Sharma, R., 1970 I.J.M.R. 58, 8, 1085.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mehrey, M.P. 1961; Eye diseases in Uttar Pradesh-"Report on the state of Health of Uttar Pradesh with particular reference to certain diseases", 209 Supdt. of Printing and Stationery, Lucknow U.P.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pahwa, J.M., 1958; Preventation of blindness of care of the blind, Eye Hospital, Sitapur.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Parthasarthy, N.R. and Gupta, C.K. 1962 Ind. J. Soc. Work, 23, 127.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sharma, J.D., Prasad, B.G., and Bagchi, S.C. 1963 , J. 1. M. A. 40, 206.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Taylor, C.E., Gulati, P.V., and Joseph, H.N. 1958 Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 7, 42.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Winkler, P.G., 1963 A morbidity survey on trachoma and other communicable eye diseases in the district of Hebron, Jordon. Bull. W.H.O., 38,417.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
W.H.O. 1962 WHD/3-13 Features Series­World Health Day , 7th April, 1962. WHO SEARO, New Delhi.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
W.H.O 1967 Manual of the International Sta­tical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death. Vol. I., 1965 revision, World Health Organisation, Geneva.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4]



 

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