|Year : 1982 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 517-518
"Prevalence and pattern alongwith socio-economic factors of myopia in school going children-8 to 16 years"
DB Chandra, Dinesh Swarup, RK Srivastava
State Institute of Ophthalmology, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad, India
D B Chandra
State Institute of Ophthalmology, M.L.N. Medical College Allahabad (UP )
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Chandra D B, Swarup D, Srivastava R K. "Prevalence and pattern alongwith socio-economic factors of myopia in school going children-8 to 16 years". Indian J Ophthalmol 1982;30:517-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Chandra D B, Swarup D, Srivastava R K. "Prevalence and pattern alongwith socio-economic factors of myopia in school going children-8 to 16 years". Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1982 [cited 2019 Jun 20];30:517-8. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1982/30/6/517/29248
Myopia is one of the most common refractive errors in school going children. Its timely and proper correction saves them from permanent disability.
| Materials and methods|| |
Statistical Survey of school going children was conducted in Allahabad district, (in U.P.,
India). 8,600 students were screened.
Following procedures were carried out :
(i) Hereditary factors.
(ii) Growth Status.
(iii) Dietary Factors.
(iv) Economic Factors.
(v) Association with other diseases.
2. Test for Visual Acuity
(i) For distance.
(ii) For near.
3. Cover Test.
4. Refraction Under Homatropine.
6. Subjective Correction.
7. Post-Mydriatic Test.
8. High Protein Diet in Selected Cases.
9. Follow-up of the Cases
(i) After six months of High Protein Intake.
(ii) After one year of High Protein Intake.
(iii) After two years of High Protein Intake.
| Observations and discussion|| |
Of 8,600 school going children screened 2750 (32%) had subnormal vision. Of these 1430 (52%) were due to myopia. Incidentally boys accounted for 65.3% of subnormal vision while girls for 34.7%.
Myopia was associated with below normal* height in 51.82% (741 children) and normal or above normal in 48.18% (689 children).
On an arbitrary classification of economic status of poor, low middle & middle group (Income ranging from 500 Rs, 1000 Rs & more than 1000 Rs month respectively myopia was distributed as follows : Poor 34.8% (499), Low middle - 29.4% (421), and middle 35.8% (511). High intraocular tension with field changes of glaucoma was detected in 1.5% of all myopes of this series. Tested for orthoptic abnormalities it was found that phorias were most commonly (65.7%) seen, while 24.7% (352) had no muscle imbalances, 9.6% showed manifest squint.
Myopia was simple in 610 (42.58%), astigmatism in 814 (57%) and unilateral myopia with amblyopia in 6 (0.42%). Among the simple myopics the degree of myopia was same in both eyes in 286 (46.8%). On the other hand among the astigmatic group, some cylinder in either eye was seen in 363 (44.7%) of cases, different cylinders in 435 (53.4%) cases and unilateral astigmatism in 16 cases.
The refractive error was properly corrected in 682 (47.4%), totally uncorrected in 335 (23.8%) and improperly corrected in 413 (28.8%).
The children were classified into 3 groups on the state of health: (i) below average 741, (ii) average 322 and (iii) good health 369.
After keeping all of them on high protein diet for 6 months, visual acuity was found to have improved with the same correction among the below average group in 28% (24). There was no change in the remaining 2 groups. After 1 years follow up the glass number was found to have reduced in 16 cases (1.11%) among the better average group. Better visual acuity was noted in 64 of average health group. On 2 years follow up among the below average group, better visual acuity with some correction was seen in 96 cases (12.9%).
It is Concluded :
1. Myopia is quite frequent in school going children with subnormal vision (32%).
2. Physical growth is below normal standard in cases of progressive Myopia (52%).
3. High protein diet had good effect in myopic children with below average health (28.3%) and also in children of average health, (20.18%) Children with good health did not improve.
4. Contrary to popular misconception, Myopia may occur without any heriditary involvement (54.7%).
5. Myopia is quite common in children belonging to good socio-economic status (36%).
6. Every case of Myopia should undergo meticulous glaucoma screening.