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   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 1983  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 397-402

An etio-clinico-pathological study in two epidemics of conjunctivitis


Railway Hospital, Allahabad, India

Correspondence Address:
N K Bhatnagar
Railway Hospital, Allahabad
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 6677598

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How to cite this article:
Bhatnagar N K. An etio-clinico-pathological study in two epidemics of conjunctivitis. Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:397-402

How to cite this URL:
Bhatnagar N K. An etio-clinico-pathological study in two epidemics of conjunctivitis. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2020 Apr 7];31:397-402. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1983/31/4/397/27564



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High incidence of Acute conjunctivitis (Eye Flu or Sangla Desh disease in common layman's language) in epidemic form was observed in the months of July, August & September in the year 1975 and 1981. The present study was conducted to study the possible factors responsible for out break of disease only in these months.


  Materials and methods Top


A study of 2583 cases attending Eye OPD as acute conjunctivitis from June 1975 to Sept. 1976 and from June 1981 to Sept. 1981 were studied clinically & pathologically with regards to present symptoms & clinical signs and the laboratory reports were co-related with clinical findings. While 1975 & 1981 were epidemic year. The year 1976 was taken as control year for comparative study. History of contact was enquired and incuba­tion period was recorded in each case. All cases were, subjected to detailed local clinical examination. Detailed Laboratory investiga­tions and general examination was carried out.

Efforts have been made to co-relate the source, mode type & effect of infection­-


  Observations Top


Observations showing a [Table - 1][Table - 2][Table - 3][Table - 4][Table - 5][Table - 6][Table - 7] Clinical classification cases (Based on signs and Symptoms)

(Redness & Mild to Moderate discharge present in all cases)

I. Actute Viral

A-(Allergic type) 65% cases

Features

---Itching

-FB sensation

-Pain

-Watery discharge

-Sub conjunctival multiple

Haemorrhages

B-Acute follicular (viral) 25% cases

-Follicles in both fornices

-Watery discharge

-Foreign Body sensation

C-Pharyngo-Conjunctival Fever (viral) 10% cases

-Conjunctivitis

-Preauricular adenitis

-Fever

-Acute Pharyngitis

-Headache

II. Acute Mucopurulent Bacterial - 100% cases

-Oedema of lids

-Gluing of lids

-Copious discharge

Response to treatment

Antibiotics-Best Results in Type I/B & II

Analgesics -Best Results in type I/C

Cortisone -Best Results in Type 1/A

(Cases without corneal complications)

B-Compresses-Cold in type I

Proved useful

Hot in type II, III. IV

Recovery period & Recurrences

Type I/A -5-15 days -2-3

Type I,'B -3-10 days -Nil

Type I/C -5-10 days --Nil

Type-II- 2-5 days --Nil

Complications (Associated or sequelae) as seen in the study

Phlycten -5°; cases (Children)

Sub. Conj, haemorrhage-90%, (in type I/A)

Superficial keratitis-30%, (type IA & I/B)

Blurring of Vision distance-20%

Near-20%

With Keratitis -60%)

Without „ 40%) Both-15%

in Type I/ A cases

DiscussION

As evident in [Table - 1]. Bacterial conjun­ctivitis was more common in children in end of June and July due to mango season, and fly breeding whereas more cases came in Aug. and Sept. of adults and elderly group because of viral epidemic.

The clinical classification into four types has been done on the basis of clinical pictrue presented by cases and as revealed acute mucopurulent was more common in children whereas viral in adolescents, adults & elderly group. Male predominated in all because of outdoor work and chances of getting infection from outside.

Infectivity was maximum in viral group comparatively low in bacterial group-this shows the virulity of infecting organism.

No antibiotic was effective in viral group except symptomatic relief by analgesics. Cortisone in Cornea-free cases of viral group helped in early recovery and even ameliora­tion of symptoms. As a preventive measure also mixed with antibiotics it was useful.

Longest recovery period was seen in viral group (Type I) and 2-3 recurrences seen.

Associated Phycten in children is unexplai­ned, although lowered resistance is a possibi­lity, peculiar phenomenon of blurring of vision was due to microscopic superficial keratitis but there were quite a good number of cases in which cornea was clear. Possibly toxins affected the ciliary muscles like that of measles. However blurring disappeared within 7 to 14 days.


  Summary Top


1. A study of 2583 cases of conjunctivitis has been presented.

2. Bacterial was more common in children where as viral in adults. with correlation to fly index and heavy rainfall in July, Aug. & Sept.

3. Four clinical types have been described.

4. Infectivity was maximum in acute viral type-allergic type.

5. Antibiotics had good role in bacterial but title role in viral conjunctivitis was vice , versa for cortisone.

6. Recovery period was longest in Group I.

7. Associated phlycten in children and blurring of vision as sequelae in adults were rare complications noticed.



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4], [Table - 5], [Table - 6], [Table - 7], [Table - 8]



 

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