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ARTICLE
Year : 1983  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 656-657

Survey of chronic simple glaucoma in the rural population of India (Udaipur) above the age group of 30 years


R.T.N. Medical College, Udaipur, India

Correspondence Address:
M R Jain
Department of Ophthalmolog, R.T.N. Medical College, Udaipur
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 6671785

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How to cite this article:
Jain M R, Modi R. Survey of chronic simple glaucoma in the rural population of India (Udaipur) above the age group of 30 years. Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:656-7

How to cite this URL:
Jain M R, Modi R. Survey of chronic simple glaucoma in the rural population of India (Udaipur) above the age group of 30 years. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2019 Aug 23];31:656-7. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1983/31/5/656/36621

In India glaucoma (of all types combined) ranks as the second important cause of blind­ness, it is reported that 32.4 per cent blindness was due to catract and 25.4 per cent due to glaucoma (2).

Present study was conducted with an aim to assess the incidence of simple glaucoma in rural population of Udaipur in the age group of 30 years and above. It was further aimed to educate the masses about this dreaded disease and stress the need to get their eyes examined at frequent intervals after the age of 30 years so that the high incidence of permanent blindness due to this disease can be prevented.


  Material and Methods Top


Villages nearby Udaipur (about 25 to 50 miles radius) were visited and house to house examinations were conducted.

Each case was examined thoroughly for any eye disease and the vision recorded. Fundus was examined in undilated pupil specially for changes in the optic disc (nasal shifting of vessels and enlargement of physiologi­cal cup, glaucomatous cupping). In all, 1483 cases were examined.

Intraocular pressure in all cases was recorded with certified Schiotz tonometer. As a rule, right eye was examined first.

Persons having I.O.P. more than 20 mm Hg were further investigated (i.e. water drinking test, field charting and detailed fundus examinations.)

Persons having I.O.P. above 20 mm Hg and who did not report for further examination were taken as drop outs.

Criteria for classification of cases under various heads was as under.

i) Non glaucomatous, cases with I.O.P. less than 20 mm Hg.

ii) Glaucomatous-Those with I.O.P. more than 20 mm Hg and having one or more auxiliary investigations positive i.e. changes in the disc, positive water drinking test, or central or peripheral field changes.

iii) Glaucoma suspect-cases with I.O.P. between 20.0 to 25.0 mm Hg, but with all auxiliary tests negative.

iv) Ocular hypertensive: those with I.O.P. above 25.0 mm Hg and all auxiliary tests negative.


  Observations Top


Out of 1483 cases, 981 were males and 502 were females. The mean I.O.P. in all the cases i.e. 1483 was 17.71 mm Hg. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean I.O.P. of males and females. The mean I.O.P. in age group D (60-69 years) is significantly higher than the mean I.O.P. of the group A (30-39 years), this concludes that as the age advances the I.O.P. also rises similar was the result in tribal population of cases.

Out of all the 1483 cases, 190 had I.O.P. over 20 mm Hg. Out of these, 61 cases were glaucoma suspects and 72 were glaucoma proved cases. Rest 55 (2 cases ocular hyper­tensive) were dropouts.

Out of the 62 glaucoma proved cases 36 were in tribal group (22 male and 14 female) and 36 were in non-tribal group. The incidence of glaucoma in tribal group was recorded to be 5.6% i.e. 36 out of 843 subjects examined.

Similarly total number of glaucoma suspects were 61. The incidence noted in tribal and non-tribal was 4.21% (27/640) and 4.03% (34/843) respectively.


  Discussion Top


Our results indicate an over all incidence of OAG as 4.85 per cent of rural population above the age of 35 years. These figures are significantly higher than the western figures (0.36%-1.7%) but it is agreed by most of the workers that glaucoma incidence is higher in non white population. This large difference is seen in both sexes, in all reporting states and in all age groups. Our study is of additional significance Since we have observed a signi­ficant higher incidence of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect in tribal population, which are usually more pigmented as compared to nontribal.

The close association of I.O.P. and O.A.G. prevalence to increasing age has been well documented. Our study makes two significant observations (i) that out of 1483 cases examined, 1137 cases had pressure ranging between 15 to 19 mm Hg (ii) out of 49 males and 25 females having I.O.P. above 25 mm Hg, 24 males and 14 females belonged to the age group of 60 to 69 years. Intra ocular pressure Figures when compared in tribal and nontribal population, shows that 6.05 per cent of tribal and 4.1 percent of non-tribal population has pressures more than 25 mm Hg. As regards relationship of sex to I.O.P. it is noted that pressure above 25 mm Hg is almost twice more frequent in males (tribal and non-tribal population) as compared to females. However, when overall average of I.O.P. in male and female popula­tion in tribal and non-tribal groups is compared, there is no statistically significant difference.


  Summary Top


1. The overall incidence of glaucoma in rural population of India (Udaipur) is 4.85 per cent.

2. The incidence of glaucoma in tribal population is 5.6 per cent and in non­tribal 4.27 per cent indicating a signi­ficantly higher incidence in tribal population.

3. The incidence of glaucoma suspects was also higher in tribal than non-tribal population.

4. An attempt to diagnose ocular hyper­tension in the studied group was usually frustrated due to high incidence of senile cataract, noncooperation of patients for further tests and drop outs.

5. There is no significant difference in the average I.O.P. of males and females though pressure above 25 mm Hg was almost twice more frequent in males as compared to females.

6. The mean I.O.P. rises significantly. with advancing age.

7. Maximum cases (78.6% tribal and 74.62 nontribal) had IOP ranging between 15 to 19 mm Hg.


  Acknowledgement Top


We are highly indebted to Indian Council of Medical Research for a grant to conduct this study.



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