|Year : 1985 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 141-144
Pattern of ocular injuries in Haryana
IPS Parmar, RC Nagpal, S Sunandan
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College, Rohtak, India
44/11-J, Medical Enclave, Rohtak-124001
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Parmar I, Nagpal R C, Sunandan S. Pattern of ocular injuries in Haryana. Indian J Ophthalmol 1985;33:141-4
The pattern of ocular injuries in a region depends upon the activities of the people residing in that particular area. The frequency of eye injuries particularly in first three decades of life is remarkably high and the damage caused is often so serious that it may produce a physical and pyschological handicap for whole of the life. Therefore, knowledge of the causes of ocular trauma is essential for their proper management and prevention.
This paper analyses the pattern of ocular injuries in Haryana province and elaborates possible measures which may help in preventing them.
| Material and methods|| |
This paper deals with 196 patients of eye injuries who were admitted from January 1976 to December 1982. The following information was recorded : age, sex, address occupation, mode of injury and ocular structures involved.
| Observations|| |
Age and sex distribution has been depicted in [Table - 1]. Largest number of patients belonged to- Rohtak district (63.77%)
The mode of injuries was extremely variable. 121 (61.74%) injuries were nonoccupational in nature [Table - 2]. Cornea (47.60%) iris (32.64%) and lids (25%) were most commonly involved ocular structures [Table - 3].
| Discussion|| |
The patients of ocular injuries comprised .082% of the total of 238154 outdoor patients from January 1976 to December 1982. Malik et al reported an incidence of 2.7% amongst the outpatients while a very high incidence of 10% was reported by Sorsby.
The males were affected for more frequently (76.01 %) than females (23.99%). The same was true for boys amongst children (71.59%). This was in conformity with Malik et al and Matti et a1 who reported the incidence of males as 86.31% and 81.8% respectively. 86.74% patients belonged to the first three decades of life as also observed by Malik et al (79.6%) in their study. Exposure to trauma while playing and working in the fields and factories as well as an active outdoor life during this period of life may be responsible for the higher incidence.
Maximum mumber of patients (63.77%) belonged to the Rohtak district as the hospital is nearest to the population of this area. There were comparatively less number of patients from other districts which may be because they were mainly the referred patients who could not be managed in the General district hospitals.
Amongst the nonoccupational injuries (61,74%) those occurring during sports and play to the children were the most common aetiological factor (33.67°%) Canavan et a1 also reported the incidence of eye injuries in children as 33-8%. Injuries by bursting crackers, use of bow and arrow, missiles and Gulli-Danda [Figure - 1] were also common causes in our study. Most of these could be prevented by proper eye health education to the masses by means of various media.
In occupational injuries (38.26%) those occurring during agricultural activity (19.9%) were the most common whereas industrial accident was next in frequency (12.24%). Malik et al reported the incidence of occupational injuries as 19.7%. A higher incidence in our study was due to agricultural activity [Figure - 2], while Malik et al had no patients due to such activity. Agriculture is a main vocation in Haryana and a corresponding pattern is seen in the ocular injures.
Canavan et a1 reported the incidence of industrial eye injuries as 15.4% as compared to 12.24% in the present study. Though the industrial eye injuries [Figure - 3] occur less frequently now than at the beginning of this century yet further enforcement of safety precautions in industry is indicated, in particular the use of protective goggles which should be made freely available.
Cornea being the most exposed structure of the eye ball, was affected in 47.6% patients while iris injury was next in frequency (32.64%). Malik et al and Sarda et al observed the corneal involvement in 55.8% and 68.1% respectively.
| Summary|| |
196 patients of ocular injuries had been reviewed. The commonest nonoccupational activity was play and occupational activity was agriculture. Cornea, iris and lids were the most commonly affected structures. Proper eye health education to the masses and awareness to the risk of eye injuries can prevent and minimize the incidence of ocular injury.
| References|| |
Malik, S.R. K., Gupta, A. K. and Choudhary S., 1968, Ind. J. Ophthalmol, 16:178.
Sorsby, A., 1972, Modern Ophthalmology Vol. 3, p. 429, London. Butterworth.
Matti Niiranen and Ilkka Raivio, 1981, Brit. J. Ophthalmol., 65: 436.
Canavan. Y. M., O' Flaherty, M. J., Archer D. B., and Elwood, J.H., 1980, Brit. J. Ophthalmol., 64 : 618.
Sarda, R. P., Mehrotra, A. S., Ratnavat, P. S. and Adnani, K., 1971, Ind. J. Ophthalmol., 19:67.
[Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3]
[Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3]