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   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 105-109

Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population


Cornea Service, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
Merle Fernandes
L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, L. V. Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.25831

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  Abstract 

Purpose: To compare the intra-patient incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and their post operative course, in children with bilateral cataract, following implantation of acrylic (Group 1) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Group 2) intraocular lenses (IOLs).
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective, interventional intra-patient case series. Twenty-five children with bilateral cataract, 5 years and older, underwent cataract surgery and implantation of an acrylic (AcrySof MA30BA, Alcon, Fortworth, TX) in one eye and PMMA (Indo Am IAB 203, Ocular Vision, Inc.) IOL in the other eye of each patient. They were followed up for an average of 11.1 ± 9.5 months to assess the incidence of clinically significant PCO and occurrence of postoperative complications.
Results:
Twenty-three children (46 eyes), were included in this study. Post-operatively, 22(95.6%) patients with acrylic IOLs and 20 (86.9%) patients with PMMA IOLs, either maintained or improved their vision. In the acrylic and PMMA IOL groups respectively, the incidence of clinically significant PCO was 21% (4) and 75% (12) ( P =0.002), with a median onset at 2.9 months and 0.7 months. Other complications included pupillary capture in 2 (8.7%) eyes and uveal prolapse in 1 (4.3%) eye in the acrylic group and increased uveal inflammation in 6 (26.1%) eyes and presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis in 2 (8.7%) eyes in the PMMA group.
Conclusion: Incidence of PCO and post operative uveal inflammation is significantly less with acrylic lenses and were safe to use in pediatric eyes.

Keywords: Pediatric cataract, posterior capsular opacification, acrylic intraocular lenses polymethyl methacrylate lenses.


How to cite this article:
Aasuri MK, Fernandes M, Pathan PP. Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population. Indian J Ophthalmol 2006;54:105-9

How to cite this URL:
Aasuri MK, Fernandes M, Pathan PP. Comparison of acrylic and polymethyl methacrylate lenses in a pediatric population. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2019 Oct 20];54:105-9. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2006/54/2/105/25831



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The incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in children, 2 years after surgery, almost equals 100%.[1] This obscures the visual axis and is a significant cause of amblyopia.[2] Several surgical techniques are currently used to prevent PCO. These include posterior capsular continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (PCCC), with or without anterior vitrectomy (AV), with or without optic capture of the intraocular lens (IOL) through the PCCC.[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] Most of these studies had a population less than 5 years of age and it is still unclear whether AV should be done routinely in older children or not. Other methods (some of which are experimental), include posterior capsule polishing[8] or the use of pharmacological agents to reduce the number of lens epithelial cells left at the end of surgery,[9] to inhibit their proliferation[10] or cause their destruction.[11] There is increasing evidence of PCO reduction with newer IOL designs and materials.[1],[12],[13],14],[15],[16],[17] The formation of PCO is significantly less with acrylic lenses, compared to PMMA or silicone lenses.[17] Since the incidence of PCO is very high in pediatric patients and the long-term effect of AV and Nd:YAG capsulotomy in this group is not known, use of an IOL to inhibit PCO formation is highly desirable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of PMMA and acrylic IOLs on the development of PCO and on the post-operative course in a group of pediatric patients.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was a prospective, interventional intra-patient case series, comprising of 46 eyes of 23 patients whose age ranged from 60 to 180 months (mean 88.9 ± 26.8 months).

Inclusion criteria included parents willing to give consent and patients with bilateral congenital or developmental cataract. One-eyed patients, presence of associated ocular disease (microophthalmos, microcornea, glaucoma, uveitis, traumatic or complicated cataract, posterior lenticonus, coloboma) and systemic disease were excluded. The occurrence of intraoperative complications such as zonulodialysis, posterior capsular dehiscence or inability to implant the IOL in the bag or the presence of a pre-existing posterior capsular plaque, were also excluded from the study. The study period was between 25th October 1997 and 14th April 2001 and patients were followed up for a minimum of 1.4 to 35 months (mean 11.1±9.5 months).

All patients were subjected to a detailed preoperative evaluation. The visual acuity was recorded with Snellen's visual acuity charts or the illiterate 'E' chart. Fixation patterns were noted in uncooperative patients. Special mention was made of the presence of nystagmus, amblyopia or strabismus. Nystagmus was defined as a rhythmic, involuntary oscillation of one or both eyes. Amblyopia referred to poor vision caused by abnormal visual development, secondary to abnormal visual stimulation, with at least 2 Snellen's lines' difference in visual acuity. Strabismus was defined as an ocular misalignment or a tendency towards misalignment, measured with the alternate cover prism test.

Slit-lamp biomicroscope examination was done and if deemed necessary, an evaluation under anesthesia was carried out. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in most patients with either the Goldmann applanation tonometer or the Perkins hand-held tonometer. Preoperative keratometry was done wherever it was possible and otherwise determined intraoperatively, under general anesthesia using the hand-held keratometer. After determining the axial length, the SRK IIÔ formula[18] was used for IOL power calculation. The IOL power was selected to ensure post-operative emmetropia.

Preoperatively, the pupils were dilated with 1% Cyclopentolate eye drops and 2.5% Phenylephrine eye drops. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. One eye of the patient received an all PMMA (Indo Am IAB 203, Ocular Vision, Inc.) IOL and the other received an acrylic foldable (AcrySof MA30BA, Alcon, Fort Worth,TX) I0L. The two eyes were not operated on simultaneously and the decision on the type of IOL implanted into the first eye was made arbitrarily by the operating surgeon. A single surgeon (MKA) operated all patients. Under all aseptic precautions, a fornix-based conjunctival flap was raised, 0.5 mm from the limbus. A 3.2 mm or 5.0 mm wide sclero-corneal tunnel for acrylic foldable IOL (Group 1) and PMMA IOL (Group 2) respectively, was made. Through a paracentesis, 0.9% Sodium hyaluronate (Proviscβ, Alcon) was injected into the anterior chamber. A 4.5-5.0 mm anterior capsular continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis was initiated with a 26G needle cystotome and completed with a rhexis forceps. The lens matter was aspirated with the automated irrigation-aspiration handpiece, taking care not to leave any lens matter behind. The posterior capsule was left intact. The capsular bag was filled with 0.9% Sodium hyaluronate and either a 5.5 mm foldable acrylic IOL (MA30BA) or after extending the tunnel, a 5 mm all PMMA IOL (IAB203), was implanted in the bag. The viscoelastic was aspirated. The main valve incision was sutured with a single, box 10-0 nylon suture if there was pouting of the anterior and or posterior lip of the scleral tunnel, at the end of surgery.

Postoperatively, all patients received a standard regime of 1% Prednisolone acetate eye drops every 4 hours, tapered weekly over a month and 0.3% Gentamicin sulfate eye drops, every 6 hours for a week. Patients were examined on the first post-operative day and subsequently at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. At each visit, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and IOP were recorded. Slit-lamp biomicroscope examination was done by an independent observer (PP), who was unaware of the type of IOL implanted. Indirect ophthalmoscopy with mydriatics was done at the 1-month follow up. The PCO was graded as shown in [Table - 1]. Grade 0-2 was considered as clinically insignificant, while Grades 3 and 4 were taken as clinically significant.

Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's exact test. Kaplan Meier cumulative survival analysis was used to assess the development of PCO in the two groups. P <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.


  Results Top


Of the 25 patients enrolled in the study, 2 had to be excluded since they did not follow up beyond one week. Fifteen (65.2%) were males. The demographic and clinical data is listed in [Table - 2]. The two groups were comparable with respect to the age at surgery and the duration of follow up. Fourteen (60.9%) patients had congenital cataract and the remaining had developmental cataract. The associated ocular features included nystagmus in 8 (34.8%), amblyopia in 10 (21.7%) and strabismus in 20 (43.5%). One child was noted to have delayed milestones. None of the patients were excluded from the study due to intraoperative complications.

The pre-operative BCVA ranged from fixing and following light to 20/50 in both groups, of which 20 (86.9%) in both groups had vision £ 20/80. Post-operatively, 17 (73.9%) patients in Group 1 had a visual acuity ³ 20/80, of which 14 (60.8%) had BCVA ³ 20/40. In the second group, 15 (65.2%) patients had a BCVA ³ 20/80, with 13 (56.5%) having a BCVA ³ 20/40. A comparison of the post-operative BCVA between the 2 groups was not observed to be statistically significant ( P =1.000, Yate's corrected chi square test). [Figure - 1] depicts the comparison of pre- and post-operative BCVA in both groups. While 22 (95.6%) eyes in the first group either maintained or improved their vision post-operatively, this was seen in 20 (86.9%) of eyes in the second group. In both groups, the 4 eyes that worsened were amblyopic and the patients were non-compliant for amblyopia therapy. One eye (group 1) had iris prolapse and increased uveal inflammation.

The postoperative complications are listed in [Table - 3]. The increased uveal inflammation noted in 6 (26.1%) eyes, subsided with an increased frequency of instillation of 1% Prednisolone acetate eyedrops and a mydriatic-cycloplegic (1% Atropine sulphate eyedrops). All these eyes had PMMA IOLs implanted. Thus a significantly ( P =0.0001, Chi square test for proportions) greater number of patients with these IOLs had increased postoperative inflammation, compared to those who received acrylic IOLs.

Two patients in group 2 had presumed non-infectious endophthalmitis, seen in the first postoperative week. One patient underwent vitreous biopsy and an intraocular injection of Vancomycin hydrochloride 0.1 mg/0.1 ml and Amikacin sulphate 400 mg/0.1ml. The cultures were sterile and on treating with 1% Prednisolone acetate and systemic steroids, the reaction resolved with a BCVA of 20/30, at the last follow up. The other patient also improved with similar medical treatment. At the last visit, the BCVA of this patient was 20/25p.

Iris prolapse without antecedent trauma occurred in one patient with an acrylic IOL, 10 days post-operatively and was accompanied with increased uveal inflammation. Following iris abscission and anterior chamber lavage, the BCVA at last follow up was 20/200. This patient had amblyopia and was non-compliant with occlusion therapy.

The onset of clinically significant PCO was found to vary from 0.03 to 6.4 months (mean 3.0 ± 3.0 months, median 2.9 months) and 0.03 to 8.9 months (mean 2.3 ± 2.7 months, median 0.7 months) from the date of surgery, in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The number of patients developing PCO was 19 (82.6%) in group 1 and 16 (69.6%) in group 2 [Table - 4]. There was no statistically significant ( P =0.491, Fisher's exact test) difference between these groups. We analyzed the number of eyes with clinically significant PCO, as per the criteria previously described. A significantly ( P =0.002, Fisher's exact test) larger number of eyes with clinically significant PCO was noted in group 2 than group 1. Fifty percent of eyes (6 of 12 eyes) with a PMMA IOL and clinically significant PCO also had increased uveal inflammation. This association however was not statistically significant ( P =0.069, Fisher's exact test). All 4 eyes with clinically significant PCO in group 1 and 7 (58.3%) in group 2 underwent a Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The age of these patients at the time of Nd:YAG capsulotomy ranged from 60-96 months (mean ± SD, 73.7 ± 15.5 months). They were all compliant for the procedure. Nystagmus was present in one case and 3 eyes were exotropic. The remaining patients with visually impairing PCO did not undergo the scheduled procedure due to financial constraints (2 patients) and 3 patients were lost to follow up. [Figure - 2] depicts the Kaplan - Meier curves of the cumulative survival probability of both groups, with respect to development of PCO. The mean survival time of eyes with acrylic IOLs was 24.4 ± 2.8 months and for PMMA IOLs was 11.9 ± 4.1 months, which was statistically significant. ( P =0.005, Log Rank test)


  Discussion Top


The management of PCO in a child is difficult. The efficacy of Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy in the pediatric population, largely depends upon the density of the membrane and the cooperation of the child. Atkinson and Hiles[19] advocate a Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy at 3 weeks after surgery. Complications like retinal detachment, cystoid macular edema and glaucoma, are known to occur in adults.[20] A longer follow up of pseudophakic children who have undergone Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is required to evaluate the long term effects. Also, recurrence of opacification of visual axis has been noted following Nd:YAG capsulotomy in young children.[21]

Thus prevention of PCO is desirable. In children, modifications in the surgical technique have been described. These involve creating an opening in the PC and a limited AV[7] or optic capture.[22] PCCC with AV is associated with IOL dislocation (3-20%),[4] and cystoid macular edema.[23] There is always a risk of retinal detachment if vitreous is incarcerated in the wound. A pars plana membranectomy may be needed, if the visual axis is occluded by secondary membranes.[19] Optic capture provides better IOL centration, but tends to predispose to an increased uveal inflammatory response[6] and is technically more demanding. Opacification of the visual axis has been reported following optic capture without AV.[6]

Several factors related to the IOL design help in reducing PCO.[24] The IOL material also plays a role. In a study by Ursell et al ,[13] 11.75% adult patients with acrylic lenses developed PCO, compared to 43.65% and 33.5% with PMMA and silicone lenses, respectively. Experimental studies have shown that there is a significantly greater adhesion of the capsule to acrylic IOLs, due to its tacky surface.[16] The exact mechanism by which the IOL material influences the behavior of these cells, is not known. It is claimed that the acrylic IOL may have bioactive properties.[25]

Most of the reports in literature compare the efficacy of IOLs of different materials on the reduction of PCO in adult populations and only 2 describe the outcome in children.[26],[27] At the end of a 3 year follow up, Hollick and coauthors[17] demonstrated that none of the patients with acrylic IOLs needed a Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, compared to 26% with PMMA and 14% with silicone IOLs. More extensive PCO was associated with the PMMA lens, than the acrylic or the silicone IOL.[28]

The incidence of clinically significant PCO was 21.1% in the group with acrylic IOLs. In the group with PMMA IOLs, 12 (75%) eyes developed a PCO, which was obscuring vision. Kaplan Meier curves distinctly demonstrate that in patients with acrylic IOLs, the posterior capsule remained clearer for a greater period of time, compared to the group with PMMA IOLs. In patients over 4 years old, with more than 2 years follow up, the incidence of visually significant PCO following acrylic IOL implantation, was 50% (13 of 26 eyes).[26] In another study comparing 2 groups with acrylic and PMMA IOLs implanted, there were less complications in the group with acrylic IOLS, though there was no difference in the incidence of PCO between groups.[27] Our data show that in pediatric eyes with acrylic IOLs implanted, the incidence of clinically significant PCO was lesser than with PMMA lenses. This is the first study in this age group, wherein acrylic and PMMA IOLs have been compared in the same patient.

Acrylic IOLs have a higher degree of biocompatibility[14] in the eye, as evidenced by the lesser amount of cellular reaction on the IOL surface and may have a role to play in those patients with a jeopardized blood-aqueous barrier. A significant finding amongst our patients was that, none of the eyes with an acrylic IOL experienced any postoperative uveal inflammation, unlike 26.1% of the eyes with a PMMA IOL. All of the eyes with PMMA also developed clinically significant PCO. Thus the IOL biocompatibility, associated uveal inflammation and development of PCO, are inter-related. However, the long-term effects of acrylic IOLs in children whose life expectancy is much more, are yet to be assessed. In adults, acrylic IOLs have been in use for less than a decade. They appear to induce less inflammatory reaction in the eye, compared to PMMA IOLs.[14],[17] Similar results have been reported earlier in children.[27] Thus, in those patients in whom the intra-ocular inflammation is expected to be greater, particularly in younger age group, acrylic lenses may be preferred.

Following the introduction of angulated haptics and capsular bag fixation of the IOL, pupillary capture is less commonly seen, though an incidence as high as 30.8% has also been described.[29] It is attributed to be one of the causes of suboptimal vision postoperatively. We noted partial pupillary capture as a late complication in 2 eyes with an acrylic IOL, due to a fusion of the iris to the PC, in an area where the rhexis was not overlying the optic, resulting in a mild lens tilt anteriorly. Both patients had good visual acuity post operatively and no signs of chronic uveitis or cells on the IOL surface were noted. Pupillary capture may occur due to the flexibility of the optic, the greater length of the lens and rigid low-angulated loops.[30]

The protocol we follow for management of presumed non-infectious endophthalmitis, has been described earlier.[31] The final visual outcome of both the patients was better than 20/40. It may be argued that the straight edge of the acrylic IOL optic may be responsible for the reduced incidence of PCO, since this is advantageous in IOLs of other materials too.[24] A comparative study between straight and rounded edge acrylic IOLs is needed to determine the effect of a difference in the IOL design.

The major limitations of this study was the small sample size, short duration of follow up, lack of randomization and masking of the observers, which limit our ability to draw convincing conclusions from this data. However, the acrylic IOLs appear to cause less visually significant PCO and are more biocompatible compared to PMMA IOLs. This needs to be substantiated by further studies.

 
  References Top

1.
Apple DJ, Solomon KD, Tetz MR, Assia EI, Holland EY, Legler EF, et al. Posterior capsular opacification. Surv Ophthalmol 1992;37:73-116.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Basti S, Ravi Shankar U, Gupta S. Results of a prospective evaluation of three methods of management of pediatric cataract. Ophthalmology 1996;103:713-20.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Vasavada AR, Chauhan H. Intraocular lens implantation in infants with congenital cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg 1994;20:592-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Buckley EG, Klombers LA, Seaber JH, Scalise-Gordy A, Mintzer R. Management of posterior capsule during pediatric intraocular lens implantation. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:722-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Gimbel HV, DeBroff BM. Posterior capsulorhexis with optic capture: maintaining a clear visual axis after pediatric cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 1994;20:658-64.  Back to cited text no. 5
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Vasavada AR, Trivedi RH. Role of optic capture in congenital cataract and intraocular lens surgery in children. J Cataract Refract Surg 2000;26:824-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.
Vasavada AR, Desai J. Primary posterior capsulectomy with and without anterior vitrectomy in congenital cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23:645-57.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Nishi O, Nishi K. Intercapsular cataract surgery with lens epithelial cell removal. Part III. Long-term follow-up of posterior capsular opacification. J Cat Ref Surg 1991;17:218-20.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Nishi O, Nishi K, Hikida M. Removal of lens epithelial cells following loosening of the junctional complex. J Cat Refract Surg 1993;19:56-61.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Power WJ, Neylan D, Collum LMT. Daunomycin as an inhibitor of human lens epithelial cell proliferation in culture. J Cataract Refract Surg 1994;20:287-90.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Clark D, Emery J, Munsell M. Inhibition of posterior capsular opacification with an immunotoxin specific for lens epithelial cells: 24 month clinical results . J Cataract Refract Surg 1998;24:1614-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Linnola RJ. Sandwich theory: bioactivity based explanation for posterior capsular opacification. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23:1539-42.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.
Ursell PG, Spalton DJ, Pande MV, Hollick EJ, Barman S, Boyce J, et al . Relationship between intraocular lens biomaterial and posterior capsular opacification. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998;24:352-60.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Hollick EJ, Spalton DJ, Ursell PG, Pande MV. Biocompatibility of Poly (methyl methacrylate), Silicone and AcrySof intraocular lenses: randomized comparison of the cellular reaction on the anterior lens surface. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998;24:361-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
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Hollick EJ, Spalton DJ, Ursell PG, Pande MV. Lens epithelial cell regression on the posterior capsule with different intraocular lens materials. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82:1182-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
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16.
Oshika T, Nagata T, Ishi Y. Adhesion of lens capsule to intraocular lenses of PMMA, Silicone and acrylic foldable materials:an experimental study. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82:549-53.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Hollick EJ, Spalton DJ, Ursell PG, Pande MV, Barman S, Boyce J, et al . The effect of Polymethylmethacrylate, Silicone and polyacrylic intraocular lenses on posterior capsular opacification 3 years after cataract surgery. Ophthalmology 1999;106:49-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Sanders DR, Retzlaff J, Kraff MC. Comparison of SRKIIÔ formulas and other 2nd generation formulas. J Cataract Refract Surg 1988;14:136-41.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.
Atkinson CS, Hiles DA. Treatment of secondary posterior capsular membranes with the Nd:YAG laser in a pediatric population. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;15:118:496-501.   Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Steinert RF, Puliafito CA, Kumar SR, Dudak SD, Patel S. Cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment and glaucoma after Nd;YAG laser posterior capsulotomy . Am J Ophthalmol 1991;112:373-80.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Hutcheson KA, Drack AV, Ellish NJ, Lambert SR. Anterior hyaloid face opacification after pediatric Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. JAAPOS 1999;3:303-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Gimbel HV. Primary continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and optic capture of the intraocular lens implant to prevent secondary opacification in pediatric cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23:652-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Parks MI. Posterior lens capsulectomy during primary cataract surgery in children. Ophthalmology 1983;90:344-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Schmidbauer JM, Vargas LG, Peng Q, Escobar-Gomez M, Werner L, Arthur SN, et al . Posterior capsular opacification. Int Ophthalmol Clin 2001;41:109-32.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Linnola RJ, Salonen JI, Happonen RP. Intraocular lens bioactivity tested using rabbit corneal tissue cultures. J Cataract Refract Surg 1999;25:1480-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Stager DR Jr, Weakley DR Jr, Hunter JS. Long-term rates of PCO following small incision acrylic intraocular lens implantation in children . J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2002;39:73-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Kuchle M, Lausen B, Gusek-Schneider GC. Results and complications of hydrophobic acrylic vs PMMA posterior chamber lenses in children under 17 years of age. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003;241:637-41.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Hayashi H, Hayashi K, Hayashi F. Quantitative comparison of posterior capsular opacification after PMMA, silicone and soft acrylic intraocular lens implantation. Arch Ophthalmol 1998;116:1579-82.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Sharma N, Pushker N, Dada T, Vajapayee RB, Dada VK. Complications of pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 1999;25:1585-8.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Nagamoto S, Kohzuko T, Nagamoto T. Pupillary block after pupillary capture of an AcrySof intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998;245:1271-4.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Jalali S, Das T, Gupta S. Presumed non-infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 1996;22:1492-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
    


    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4]


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