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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 109-114

Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children


1 Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Pediatric Neuroophthalmology and Adult Strabismus of Jyotirmay Eye Clinic, Thane; Mahatme Eye Hospital, Nagpur; Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, Wadala, Maharashtra, India
2 Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, Wadala, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Pediatric Neuroophthalmology and Adult Strabismus of Jyotirmay Eye Clinic, Thane, India
4 Mahatme Eye Hospital, Nagpur, India

Correspondence Address:
Mihir Kothari
Jyotirmay Eye Clinic and Pediatric Low Vision Center, 205, Ganatra Estate, Next to Punjani Ind. Estate, Pokhran Rd. No 1, Thane (W) - 400 601, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.94051

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Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO) with dynamic retinoscopy (DR) in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years). Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years) and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years) demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children). Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa) 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30), the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5). Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.


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