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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 189-193

Effects of hydroquinone on retinal and vascular cells in vitro


1 Department of Ophthalmology, Gavin S. Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Lotus Eye Care Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Gavin S. Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Royal Lancaster Infirmary, University Hospitals of Morecambe NHS Trust, Lancaster, United Kingdom
3 Departamento de Oftalmologia, Fundacion VER, Cordoba, Argentina
4 University at Buffalo, Center for Hearing and Deafness, Buffalo, NY, USA
5 Department of Ophthalmology, Gavin S. Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Cristina M Kenney
Department of Ophthalmology, University of California Irvine, Medical Center, 101 The City Drive, Orange, CA 92868, USA

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.95869

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Aim: To explore the molecular pathophysiology that might explain the epidemiologic association between cigarette smoke and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by examining the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a toxic compound present in high concentration in cigarette smoke-related tar, on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), rat retinal neurosensory cells (R-28), and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Materials and Methods: ARPE-19, R-28, and HMVEC were treated for 24 h with four different concentrations of HQ (500 μM, 200 μM, 100 μM, 50 μM). Cell viability, caspase-3/7 activation, DNA laddering patterns, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were analyzed. Results: At 50 μM HQ, R-28 cells showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated controls. At the 100-500 μM concentrations, all three cell lines showed significant cell death (P < 0.001). In the ARPE-19, R-28, and HMVEC cultures, the caspase-3/7 activities were not increased at any of the HQ concentration. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the mechanism of cell death in all three cell lines was through non-apoptotic pathway. In addition, neuroretinal R-28 cells were more sensitive to HQ than the ARPE-19 and HMVEC cultures.


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