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   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1060-1063

Choroidal thickness profi le in healthy Indian subjects


1 Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Centre, Hyderabad, India
2 L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Kode Venkatadri Chowdary Campus, Tadigadapa, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, Hyderabad, India

Date of Submission21-Jan-2014
Date of Acceptance12-Oct-2014
Date of Web Publication10-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Rajeev Reddy Pappuru
Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L.V. Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500 034, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.146711

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  Abstract 

Purpose: The aim was to study choroidal thickness (CT) and its profile based on location in healthy Indian subjects using Cirrus high definition (HD) optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 eyes of 115 healthy subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using Cirrus HD 1 line raster scan mode without pupillary dilation. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL) >24 mm or <20 mm were excluded. Experienced technician measured CT from the lower border of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the lower border of choroid. CT was measured from the posterior edge of the RPE to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-μm intervals up to 3000 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between CT at various locations and age, AXL, spherical equivalent, and macular thickness. Results: Mean age was 42.8 ± 13.6 years. Mean AXL was 22.84 ± 0.78 mm. Median spherical equivalent was 0.16 ± 0.64 D. Mean central macular thickness was 216.4 ± 30.03 μm. Choroidal was thinnest nasally and thickest subfoveally. On multivariate regression, age was the most significant factor affecting subfoveal CT (P = 0.000). Regression analysis showed an approximate decrease in CT of 1.18 μm every year. Conclusions: Our study provides CT profile in Indian healthy subjects in various age groups. CT depends on its location, subfoveal being the thickest and nasal being the thinnest. Age is a critical factor, which is negatively correlated with CT.

Keywords: Choroid, choroidal thickness, enhanced depth imaging


How to cite this article:
Chhablani J, Rao P S, Venkata A, Rao HL, Rao B S, Kumar U, Narayanan R, Pappuru RR. Choroidal thickness profi le in healthy Indian subjects. Indian J Ophthalmol 2014;62:1060-3

How to cite this URL:
Chhablani J, Rao P S, Venkata A, Rao HL, Rao B S, Kumar U, Narayanan R, Pappuru RR. Choroidal thickness profi le in healthy Indian subjects. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 14];62:1060-3. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2014/62/11/1060/146711

The choroid is the most vascular tissue in the eye, provides a blood supply to the outer retinal structures. Choroidal abnormalities such as vascular hyperpermeability and loss, and thinning are critical to the onset and progression of many chorioretinal diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy, [1] Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, [2] high myopia-related chorioretinalatrophies, [3] age-related macular degeneration, [4] and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. [5]

With the recent development of recent enhanced depth imaging (EDI), in-vivo assessment of choroid has become an area of interest. EDI helps better visualization of choroid, which allows accurate quantitative assessment of the choroid, which was not possible before. [6] Information about the choroidal thickness (CT) could be useful in many clinical situations for decision making regarding the management and monitoring of disease progression. Recent literature has shown the effect of age, sex, axial length (AXL), refractive error, and diurnal variation on the CT. [7],[8]

Various studies have reported normal range of CT. [9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] However, none of these reports provides range of CT measurements in each decade, which could help to differentiate between diseased or normal choroid in a given patient. Retinal parameters have been reported to vary in various ethnic groups. [15] Previous reports on CT are mostly from the western world and from the Asian countries including Japan and China. [9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] However, there is no literature available on normative CT profile in Indian population.

This prospective observational study aimed to report normative database of CT in healthy Indian subjects in various age groups.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was performed from January 2010 to June 2012. Prior approval from the Institutional Review Board of the institute was taken, and informed consent was obtained from each subject. This study was conducted in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. About 81 healthy volunteers with no history of eye disorders were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria included high myopia (>−6 D), or hyperopia (>+4 D), any retinal or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) abnormality detectable on optical coherence tomography scan, poor image quality because of unstable fixation, or any history of any intraocular surgery.

All participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including visual acuity testing using, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometer and dilated fundoscopic examination. AXL measurement was performed using ocular biometry (IOL Master; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany).

Choroidal imaging

An optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were obtained by using Cirrus high definition (HD)-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA, USA. Software Version 5.0.0.326) with undilated pupil. The scan used for imaging in this study is HD 1 line raster. Scan 3 of the 5, which passes through the fovea and was used for all the measurements. Scans with a signal strength of ≥6 were used for analysis.

Using the Cirrus linear measurement tool, experienced observer measured CT perpendicularly from the outer portion of the hyperreflective line corresponding to the RPE to the inner surface of the sclera at 500 μm intervals temporal and nasal from the fovea, up to 2500 μm [Figure 1]. Inter-observer reproducibility and intra-observer repeatability was measured for 30 eyes.
Figure 1: The mean choroidal thickness (CT) with confi dence intervals measured at different locations across a horizontal section through the fovea at 500 μm intervals from 3 mm nasal to the fovea to 3 mm temporal in healthy eyes. Maximum CT is noted at the fovea with gradual decrease with the distance from fovea, thinner on the nasal side of the fovea

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Statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics included mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. As both eyes of most subjects were included for analysis, the correlation between the two eyes of the same subject was adjusted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) during the calculation of summary descriptive parameters. Multivariate models adjusted using GEE methods were fit to assess the effects of age, gender, AXL, and macular thickness on the CT measurements. Statistical analyses were performed using commercial software (Stata ver. 12.1; StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). The alpha level (type I error) was set at 0.05.


  Results Top


We included 211 eyes of 115 healthy subjects with 50 (91 eyes) men and 65 (120 eyes) women. About 19 eyes were excluded because of poor quality of images. Mean age was 42.8 ± 13.6 years. Mean AXL was 22.84 ± 0.78 mm. Median spherical equivalent was 0.16 ± 0.64 D. Mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 216.4 ± 30.03 μm. All patients were phakic.

Choroidal thickness at various locations from fovea in various age groups is shown in [Table 1]. Intraclass correlation coefficient for intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer repeatability was 0.95 and 0.97. There was a gradual decrease in CT at all locations from 3 rd to 8 th decade. The mean subfoveal CT in 3 rd decade was 294.8 ± 46.5 μm and that of in 8 th decade 249.6 ± 36.0 μm. The decrease in CT was observed to be more in older subjects (>60 years). However, this difference was statistically insignificant due to a small number of subjects with age >60 years. When compared between two eyes of one patient, there was no significant difference in CT at all locations.

Choroidal thickness distribution was found to be uniform on the nasal side of the fovea compared to the temporal side. Maximum CT was noted subfoveal and gradual decrease as the distance increases. The CT on both sides, nasal and temporal, to fovea, was thinner compared with the subfoveal CT, this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001 at all locations). CT progressively reduces as the distance from fovea increase, more prominent thinning noted on the nasal side of the fovea. Hence, the choroid was noted to be thinnest near optic nerve head [Table 1] and [Figure 2].
Table 1: Mean choroidal thickness at various locations from fovea in various age groups

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Figure 2: Scatterplot showing negative correlation between subfoveal choroidal thickness and age in healthy subjects. R2 = 0.13

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We found that the age was the only significant variable correlating with CT at all locations. Age had a negative correlation with the CT [Figure 2]. There was 1.18 μm/year choroidal thinning observed. CMT had a weak correlation with CT at all locations. There was no significant difference between the males and females. Relationship of variables with subfoveal CT has been shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: Relationship between various factors with
subfoveal choroidal thickness


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  Discussion Top


Ours is the first study, which reports normative CT profile in various age groups in healthy Indian eyes and discusses various factors affecting CT.

Normative CT profile is necessary to make the diagnosis of the choroidal abnormalities. All the previous normative studies on CT have included eyes with larger AXL s as well; therefore, these studies do not give a correct impression of the normal variation of CT [Table 3]. Spherical equivalent may not be a true determinant for the actual length of the eye, and hence it may not correspond with anatomical variation such as thinning of the choroid. In our study, we excluded eyes with AXL of >24 mm or <20 mm. Therefore, our study provides a genuine database for CT based on AXL, a more objective variable.

Compared with previous studies in healthy subjects, our study shows a slight difference in CT with a lesser variation. [9],[10],[11],[12],[13] This difference may result from a difference in spectral domain (SD)-OCT machines, ethnicity and patients profile (AXL, spherical equivalent variability). However, in our study, the study population was classified on the basis of age group within normal range of AXL (20-25 mm). Studies by Ikuno et al., [11] Hirata et al., [10] and Ding et al. [9] included subjects with longer AXL, up to 28 mm. Manjunath et al. [12] and Margolis and Spaide et al. [13] did not mention the range of AXL in study population and ethnic distribution of their subjects.
Table 3: Comparison of present study with previously published literature on choroidal thickness in healthy subjects

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In our study of healthy subjects, age was the only significant factor, which had a negative correlation with CT similar to previous reports. [7] Margolis and Spaide et al. [13] reported 15.6 μm decrease in CT every 10 years, similarly 14 μm decrease every decade was reported by Ikuno et al. [11] In our study, we found a decrease of approximately 11.8 μm in CT every decade. Ding et al. [9] reported that this age-related thinning occurs only in age older than 60 years of age. Our study did not have the power to show a statistically significant difference between younger subjects and subjects older than 60 years of age due to small number of subjects of subjects older than 60 years with good quality images.

Strengths of the present study include stringent criteria of study population, including phakic eyes with AXL of 20-25 mm, excellent inter-observer repeatability and intra-observer reproducibility for manual measurement of CT. Limitations of our study include small sample size; especially age >60 years. We excluded many SD-OCT images of healthy subjects of older subjects due to poor image quality due to lens opacity. We included pseudophakic eyes, to avoid any confounding effect of surgery on CT.


  Conclusions Top


Our study provides a valid normative database of CT in healthy Indian subjects in various age groups. This database could be useful for further studies evaluating choroidal changes in various chorioretinal disorders.

 
  References Top

1.
Ross A, Ross AH, Mohamed Q. Review and update of central serous chorioretinopathy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2011;22:166-73.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Read RW, Rao NA, Cunningham ET. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2000;11:437-42.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Fujiwara T, Imamura Y, Margolis R, Slakter JS, Spaide RF. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 2009;148:445-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Chung SE, Kang SW, Lee JH, Kim YT. Choroidal thickness in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 2011;118:840-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Yannuzzi LA, Sorenson J, Spaide RF, Lipson B. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV). Retina 1990;10:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chhablani J, Barteselli G, Wang H, El-Emam S, Kozak I, Doede AL, et al. Repeatability and reproducibility of manual choroidal volume measurements using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:2274-80.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Barteselli G, Chhablani J, El-Emam S, Wang H, Chuang J, Kozak I, et al. Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: A three-dimensional analysis. Ophthalmology 2012;119:2572-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Tan CS, Ouyang Y, Ruiz H, Sadda SR. Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:261-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ding X, Li J, Zeng J, Ma W, Liu R, Li T, et al. Choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:9555-60.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Hirata M, Tsujikawa A, Matsumoto A, Hangai M, Ooto S, Yamashiro K, et al. Macular choroidal thickness and volume in normal subjects measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:4971-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ikuno Y, Kawaguchi K, Nouchi T, Yasuno Y. Choroidal thickness in healthy Japanese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:2173-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Manjunath V, Taha M, Fujimoto JG, Duker JS. Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 2010;150:325-9.e1.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Margolis R, Spaide RF. A pilot study of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in normal eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 2009;147:811-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Rahman W, Chen FK, Yeoh J, Patel P, Tufail A, Da Cruz L. Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:2267-71.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Tariq YM, Samarawickrama C, Pai A, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P. Impact of ethnicity on the correlation of retinal parameters with axial length. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:4977-82.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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