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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 400-406

Use of subjective and objective criteria to categorise visual disability

Department of Ophthalmology, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Upreet Dhaliwal
KH-6, New Kavinagar, Ghaziabad - 201 002, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.121146

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Context: Visual disability is categorised using objective criteria. Subjective measures are not considered. Aim: To use subjective criteria along with objective ones to categorise visual disability. Settings and Design: Ophthalmology out-patient department; teaching hospital; observational study. Material and Methods: Consecutive persons aged >25 years, with vision <20/20 (in one or both eyes) due to chronic conditions, like cataract and refractive errors, were categorized into 11 groups of increasing disability; group-zero: normal range of vision, to group-X: no perception of light, bilaterally. Snellen's vision; binocular contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson chart); automated binocular visual field (Humphrey; Esterman test); and vision-related quality of life (Indian Visual Function Questionnaire-33; IND-VFQ33) were recorded. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version-17; Kruskal-wallis test was used to compare contrast sensitivity and visual fields across groups, and Mann-Whitney U test for pair-wise comparison (Bonferroni adjustment; P < 0.01). One-way ANOVA compared quality of life data across groups; for pairwise significance, Dunnett T3 test was applied. Results: In 226 patients, contrast sensitivity and visual fields were comparable for differing disability grades except when disability was severe (P < 0.001), or moderately severe (P < 0.01). Individual scales of IND-VFQ33 were also mostly comparable; however, global scores showed a distinct pattern, being different for some disability grades but comparable for groups III (78.51 6.86) and IV (82.64 5.80), and groups IV and V (77.23 3.22); these were merged to generate group 345; similarly, global scores were comparable for adjacent groups V and VI (72.53 6.77), VI and VII (74.46 4.32), and VII and VIII (69.12 5.97); these were merged to generate group 5678; thereafter, contrast sensitivity and global and individual IND-VFQ33 scores could differentiate between different grades of disability in the five new groups. Conclusions: Subjective criteria made it possible to objectively reclassify visual disability. Visual disability grades could be redefined to accommodate all from zero-100%.

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