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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 76-83

Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

1 Department of Ophthalmology, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital; Fundus Image Reading Center, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Singapore
2 Department of Ophthalmology, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Srinivas R Sadda
Doheny Eye Institute, DEI 3623, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.178145

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Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA) detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease.

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