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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 654-658

Ocular manifestations of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatric population

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
2 Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Kecioren Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Handan Akil
Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.194336

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Context: To evaluate the necessity of ocular screening in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Aims: This study aims to investigate the diabetes-related ocular changes according to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and duration of diabetes in children and compare the results with nondiabetic healthy children. Settings and Design: Observational cross-sectional study designed by ophthalmology and pediatric endocrinology clinics. Subjects and Methods: Forty-two children with Type 1 DM, 42 healthy gender- and age-matched children as controls were enrolled. All patients underwent ophthalmic and physical examination, with a review of medical history and current medication. HbA1c level, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer test, dilated fundus examination findings, central retinal thickness (CRT), and total macular volume (TMV) measurements were noted. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-square test for comparison of the group parameters and correlation analyses (Spearman analysis) were performed with SPSS statistical software 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Type 1 DM group exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer test, increased IOP and decreased retinal thickness relative to the age-matched control group (P < 0.05) but no statistically significant difference was found for the BUT (P = 0.182) and for the CCT (P = 0.495). The correlations between the age, duration, HbA1c and IOP, BUT, Schirmer test, TMV, CRT measurements did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: More frequent screening may be needed for complications, including neuropathy-related dry eye syndrome, IOP changes, and diabetic retinopathy in children with Type 1 DM.

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