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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 541-546

Prevalence, progression, and outcomes of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in Indian scenario

1 Dr R P Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pradeep Venkatesh
Dr R P Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1062_17

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Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate pattern of diabetic retinopathy (DR) during pregnancy in females with pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This is an ambispective observational cohort study conducted at an Indian tertiary care centre. A total of 50 pregnant females with pregestational DM were included while those with gestational DM were excluded from the study. Ocular examination (inclusive of fundus photography) was conducted and systemic parameters (inclusive of Glycated hemoglobin) were assessed during each of the 3 trimesters and 3 months postpartum. The prevalence and progression of DR during pregnancy in the study cohort were the main outcome measures. Results: Three of the 50 patients had type 1 DM while 47 had type II DM. All the patients with type I DM were insulin dependent while 19 patients with type II DM were insulin dependent. Overall prevalence of DR was 8% (4/50); 2 cases had nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and 2 had proliferative DR (PDR). During the study period, worsening was seen in both the patients with PDR and one required vitrectomy. Mean visual acuity in patients with PDR decreased from 0.77 logMAR units at presentation to 1.23 logMAR at final follow-up. There was no change in the mean visual acuity of patients with NPDR. None of the patients with NPDR converted to PDR. There was no new onset DR in the patients without DR at presentation. Assessment of risk factors for DR revealed significantly higher duration of DM (14 ± 6.32 years vs. 3.43 ± 1.43 years, P = 0.0008). The median age was also higher in the DR patients (31 years vs. 29 years, P = 0.32). Conclusion: No new onset cases were seen during the course of pregnancy and no conversion from NPDR to PDR was seen; however, a worsening of the two PDR cases was observed. No cases of DR were seen in noninsulin-dependent DM. None of the four participants with DR showed a spontaneous resolution of DR postpartum. Patients with PDR and long-standing DM require careful observation during pregnancy. A registry of diabetic mothers should be set up for development of guidelines for managing such cases.

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