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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 812-815

Cerebral visual impairment in children: Causes and associated ophthalmological problems

1 The David Brown Children's Eye Care Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Jasti V Ramanamma Children's Eye Care Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Niranjan Pehere
The David Brown Children's Eye Care Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Kode Venkatadri Chowdary Campus, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1274_17

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Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Methods: A retrospective review of case records of all children aged <16 years with diagnosis of CVI seen between January 2016 and December 2016 was carried out. Data were collected for their age, gender, cause of CVI, refraction, accommodation, anterior and posterior segment examination findings, and systemic problems. Results: A total of 124 patients were identified and studied (80 boys and 44 girls, mean age 5.23 years, 44.8% aged <2 years). The most common causes of CVI were hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (34.4%), undetermined etiology (32.8%), neonatal seizures, and infantile spasms (16% each). The most common presenting complaints were poor vision (76%) and squint (11.2%). Profound visual impairment was seen in 88.8%, and 11.2% had high functioning CVI. Fifty-eight (46.4%) patients had significant refractive errors, 40 (32.25%) had strabismus, 4 (3.2%) had visually significant cataract, and 40 (32%) had optic atrophy. Motor delay was observed in 39.5%, speech delay was evident in 22.4%, and cognitive delay in 16%. Conclusion: HIE is the most common cause (one-third) of CVI in our population, and the majority of them presented at age <2 years (44.8%) with profound visual impairment (88.8%). A significant number of them have treatable ophthalmic conditions such as refractive errors (46.4%), accommodative insufficiency (12.1%), and cataract (3.2%), and more than one-third of them also have delay in other areas of development.

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