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   Table of Contents      
PHOTO ESSAY
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 1321-1322

Different responses to two consecutive Nd:YAG laser membranotomies at different locations in a 3-week-old sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage


1 Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Ophthalmology, Armed Force Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Date of Submission25-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance09-May-2018
Date of Web Publication20-Aug-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hyeong Gon Yu
Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744
Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_310_18

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  Abstract 


Keywords: Nd:YAG laser membranotomy, sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage, Valsalva retinopathy


How to cite this article:
Oh BL, Yu HG. Different responses to two consecutive Nd:YAG laser membranotomies at different locations in a 3-week-old sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage. Indian J Ophthalmol 2018;66:1321-2

How to cite this URL:
Oh BL, Yu HG. Different responses to two consecutive Nd:YAG laser membranotomies at different locations in a 3-week-old sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 18];66:1321-2. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2018/66/9/1321/239348




  Case Top


A 20-year-old male soldier, with a history of a series of episodes of vomiting 22 days ago, presented with a central scotoma in his left eye. His visual acuity was hand movements OS. Fundus examination revealed a boat-shaped large premacular hemorrhage, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated a sub-internal limiting membrane (ILM) hemorrhage [Figure 1]. Given the classical clinical presentation, a diagnosis of Valsalva retinopathy was made.
Figure 1: (a) Color fundus photograph of the left eye of a 20-year-old man with Valsalva retinopathy showing a massive premacular hemorrhage. Blood was partly settled resulting a fluid-blood level. (b) Infrared images with overlaid raster scans (red and yellow lines) demonstrating the positions of spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-section (c and d). (c) Above the fluid blood level, the hyperreflective internal limiting membrane was distinct from turbid fluid with slight hyporeflection. (d) Below the fluid blood level, the internal limiting membrane was indistinct from the settled blood

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Nd:YAG laser was applied in a single shot to the ILM surface, beginning at 1.7 mJ and titrated in 0.2–0.3 mJ steps, without effect. Finally, a single shot at 4.8 mJ led to successful photodisruption and some blood was noted flowing through the ILM opening. However, drainage was minimal due to clot formation. When the second shot at the same energy was applied at a different location on the dependent part of ILM covering thick hemorrhage to protect the underlying retina, blood began to drain smoothly into vitreous cavity [Figure 2]. Four days postprocedure, the corrected vision was 20/25 with near-complete clearing of the premacular region. Three weeks later, his vision was 20/20 with further clearing of the vitreous hemorrhage [Figure 3].
Figure 2: When one additional Nd:YAG laser shot was applied at a different location on the internal limiting membrane overlying the hemorrhage, blood gushed out into the vitreous cavity

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Figure 3: (a) Fundus photograph 3 weeks after Nd:YAG membranotomy showing the resolution of the premacular hemorrhage. Long black and white arrows depicting the first and the second internal limiting membrane openings, respectively. (b) Infrared image with overlaid raster scans (blue and green lines) demonstrating the positions of spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross section (c and d). Short black and white arrows depicting the internal limiting membrane openings. (c) Detached internal limiting membrane and intact macula are noted. (d) Detached internal limiting membrane and two openings of internal limiting membrane without underlying retinal damage are noted. Black and white arrowheads depicting the first and the second internal limiting membrane openings, respectively

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  Discussion Top


Nd:YAG membranotomy is a valuable treatment option for sub-ILM hemorrhage.[1],[2],[3] A duration of over 3 weeks is known to be a critical factor for failure of clearance of sub-ILM hemorrhage.[4],[5] In our patient with a 22-day-old hemorrhage, the responses to the two laser shots were totally different. It might be because the degree of blood clot formations was not homogenous within the hemorrhage. Some cumulative effect of the energy delivered by two laser shots might also have contributed to the disruption of partly coagulated blood, resulting in its successful drainage.


  Conclusion Top


An additional laser shot successfully evacuated a sub-ILM hemorrhage. This result of different responses to laser shots could be taken into consideration while managing a sub-ILM hemorrhage of over 3 weeks' duration.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that his names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Gabel VP, Birngruber R, Gunther-Koszka H, Puliafito CA. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. Am J Ophthalmol 1989;107:33-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ulbig MW, Mangouritsas G, Rothbacher HH, Hamilton AM, McHugh JD. Long-term results after drainage of premacular subhyaloid hemorrhage into the vitreous with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Arch Ophthalmol 1998;116:1465-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rennie CA, Newman DK, Snead MP, Flanagan DW. Nd:YAG laser treatment for premacular subhyaloid haemorrhage. Eye (Lond) 2001;15:519-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Durukan AH, Kerimoglu H, Erdurman C, Demirel A, Karagul S. Long-term results of Nd:YAG laser treatment for premacular subhyaloid haemorrhage owing to Valsalva retinopathy. Eye (Lond) 2008;22:214-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Zou M, Gao S, Zhang J, Zhang M. Persistent unsealed internal limiting membrane after Nd:YAG laser treatment for Valsalva retinopathy. BMC Ophthalmol 2013;13:15.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]



 

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