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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 1374-1375

Amblyopia: It is time to take action

Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication20-Aug-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Piyush Kohli
Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh - 160 030
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_89_18

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How to cite this article:
Kohli P, Bansal R K, Soni T, Agrawal A. Amblyopia: It is time to take action. Indian J Ophthalmol 2018;66:1374-5

How to cite this URL:
Kohli P, Bansal R K, Soni T, Agrawal A. Amblyopia: It is time to take action. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jul 14];66:1374-5. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2018/66/9/1374/239370


We retrospectively analyzed demographic and clinical profile of treatment-naïve patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in North India from 2001 to 2015. Impaired vision was mostly detected at the school level. About two third of the patients presented after the critical age of amblyopia, that is, 7 years.[1] Patients with nonrefractive amblyopia presented late as majority of parents were ignorant of long-term complications of squint and ptosis [Table 1]. Unilateral amblyopes remained undetected and presented late. Mean age of presentation for bilateral and unilateral amblyopes was 7.7 ± 4.4 and 13.9 ± 8.3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Most females presented near their marriageable age and yearned for a good cosmetic outcome for squint or ptosis rather than visual gain. Mean age of presentation for male and female patients was 11.4 ± 7.5 and 12.4 ± 8.2 years, respectively (P = 0.026).
Table 1: Gender and age-wise distribution in different types of amblyopia

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Mean presenting best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of unilateral amblyopes was worse than bilateral amblyopes; and nonrefractive amblyopia was worse than refractive amblyopia [Figure 1]. Severe amblyopia, that is, BCVA ≤20/100, was more common in patients ≤7 years than >7 years of age (24.0% vs 47.1%).[2] Patients with nonrefractive amblyopia mostly presented with severe amblyopia [Table 1].
Figure 1: Comparison of best-corrected visual acuity in various types of amblyopia

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We have to overcome several obstacles in order to decrease the impact of amblyopia on the society. The first and foremost step is to ensure maximum community participation. This requires educating people on the subject so as to uproot the myths prevalent in the society.[3],[4],[5] Organization of awareness programs in collaboration with grass root health-care personnel working in maternal and child health care; as well as social and religious leaders will allow maximum penetration of the propaganda in the society. Apart from awareness campaigns, effort should be made to screen the preschool children at Anganwadis and crèches. We recommend introducing the practice of getting comprehensive eye check-up by a qualified ophthalmologist before admission to all government and private schools. As parents have great trust in physicians and pediatricians, they play a great role in informing the parents about the problem and its grave complications. Effort should be made to enroll all the pediatric health-care providers to screen and refer maximum children in the critical period.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

DeSantis D. Amblyopia. Pediatr Clin North Am 2014;61:505-18.  Back to cited text no. 1
Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of prescribed patching regimens for treatment of severe amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology 2003;110:2075-87.  Back to cited text no. 2
Ganekal S, Jhanji V, Liang Y, Dorairaj S. Prevalence and etiology of amblyopia in southern India: Results from screening of school children aged 5-15 years. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2013;20:228-31.  Back to cited text no. 3
Nirmalan PK, Sheeladevi S, Tamilselvi V, Victor AC, Vijayalakshmi P, Rahmathullah L. Perceptions of eye diseases and eye care needs of children among parents in rural south India: The Kariapatti Pediatric Eye Evaluation Project (KEEP). Indian J Ophthalmol 2004;52:163-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Senthilkumar D, Balasubramaniam SM, Kumaran SE, Ramani KK. Parents' awareness and perception of children's eye diseases in Chennai, India. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:1462-6.  Back to cited text no. 5


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  [Table 1]


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