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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 10  |  Page : 1560-1563

Smartphone photography for screening amblyogenic conditions in children


Department of Ophthalmology, King Georges' Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Siddharth Agrawal
Department of Ophthalmology, King Georges' Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2090_18

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Purpose: To validate the smartphone photography as a screening tool for amblyogenic conditions in children. Methods: Children between 5 to 8 years attending eye out patient department (OPD) were photographed (by an optometrist) with a smartphone to capture their pupillary red reflexes followed by clinical examination by the principal investigator (PI). The PI on the basis of clinical examination identified children with significant amblyogenic conditions and, subsequently, two ophthalmologists independently categorized the photographs on the basis of color, symmetry, and shape of the pupillary reflex into normal or abnormal. The identification of amblyogenic conditions on clinical examination was compared to that on photography. Refractive errors <3D and anisometropia <2D were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of smartphone photography screening were determined. Results: In all, 250 children were screened. Clinically 23.6% were harboring amblyogenic conditions. The mean sensitivity and specificity of screening by smartphone were 94% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: Smartphone photography is a reliable tool for detection of amblyogenic conditions in children.


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