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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 12  |  Page : 2035-2042

Malignant transformation of choroidal nevus according to race in 3334 consecutive patients

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Service, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Carol L Shields
Ocular Oncology Service, 840 Walnut Street, Suite 1440, Philadelphia, PA 19107
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1217_19

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Purpose: To evaluate choroidal nevus demographics, clinical features, imaging features, and the rate of transformation into melanoma by race. Methods: In this observational case series, There were 3334 participants (3806 choroidal nevi) at a single tertiary-referral center evaluated between January 2, 2007, and August 7, 2017. Retrospective chart and multimodal imaging review was performed. Patient demographics, tumor features, and outcomes were compared between different races using Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and analysis of variance. The main outcome measure was clinical features of choroidal nevus and the rate of transformation into melanoma by race. Results: Of the 3334 patients, there were Caucasian (n = 3167, 95%) and non-Caucasian (n = 167, 5%). The non-Caucasian races included African-American (n = 27, <1%), Hispanic (n = 38, <1%), Asian (n = 15, <1%), Asian Indian (n = 2, <1%), Middle Eastern (n = 4, <1%), and unknown (n = 83, 3%). By comparison (Caucasian versus vs. non-Caucasian), there were differences in the mean age at presentation (61 vs. 56 years,P < 0.0001), female sex (63% vs. 52%,P < 0.01), dysplastic nevus syndrome (<1% vs. 1%,P < 0.01), and previous cutaneous melanoma (5% vs. 1%,P= 0.03). A comparison of tumor features revealed differences in presence of symptoms (12% vs. 20%,P < 0.01) and ≥3 nevi per eye (3% vs. <1%,P= 0.04). A comparison of imaging features showed no differences. A comparison of outcome of nevus transformation into melanoma revealed no difference (2% vs. 3%,P= 0.29). However, of those nevi exhibiting growth to melanoma, ultrasonographic hollowness was less frequent in Caucasians (29% vs. 67%,P= 0.04). Conclusion: In this analysis of 3334 patients with choroidal nevus, we found differences in the mean age of presentation, sex, dysplastic nevus syndrome, previous cutaneous melanoma, presence of symptoms, and multiplicity of nevus per eye by race. However, there was no difference in the rate of transformation into melanoma by race.

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