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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 922-927

Retrobulbar dexmedetomidine in pediatric vitreoretinal surgery eliminates the need for intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesia: A randomized controlled study

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
2 Department of Cell Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
3 Department of Anesthesiology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zhiyong Hu
The Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3333# Binsheng road, Hangzhou, 310052
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1905_18

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Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of retrobulbar ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine compared with systemic fentanyl in pediatric vitreoretinal (VR) surgery. Methods: This prospective double-blind, randomized controlled study was performed in 60 children undergoing VR surgery, age from 2 to 7 years. After general anesthesia, the following procedure was administrated: (1) retrobulbar block with 0.5% ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (group RD, n = 20), (2) retrobulbar block with 0.5% ropivacaine (group RB, n = 20), and (3) control group with general anesthesia only (group F, n = 20). Hemodynamics, postoperative pain scores, anesthetics consumption (remifentanil, propofol, fentanyl), and emergence agitation were recorded. Results: Respiratory depression was observed in 7 of the 20 patients in group F after the laryngeal mask airway was removed in the operating room, compared with none in groups RD and RB. All patients in group F required intraoperative rescue fentanyl (average intraoperative fentanyl consumption, 26.6 ± 12.6 μg per patient). Some rescue fentanyl was required in group RB (three patients required one dose of rescue fentanyl). Patients in group RD required none. Groups RD and RB reported lower pain scores than group F at 4 h postoperatively (RD group: P < 0.001; RB group: P =0.002); pain scores in group RD were lower than that in group F at 6 h postoperatively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Retrobulbar dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine is a safe and effective alternative to systemic fentanyl. This regimen provides better pain management, hemodynamic stability, and stress response suppression in pediatric VR surgery.

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