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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 1048-1053

Causative fungi and treatment outcome of dematiaceous fungal keratitis in North India


1 Department of Cornea and Refractive Error, C L Gupta Eye Institute, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase 2(Ext) Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Microbiology, C L Gupta Eye Institute, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase 2(Ext) Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Clinical Research, C L Gupta Eye Institute, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase 2(Ext) Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ajit Kumar
Department of Cornea and Refractive Error, C L Gupta Eye Institute, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase 2(Ext) Moradabad - 244 001, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1612_18

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Purpose: The aim of the study is to identify risk factors, clinical characteristics, causative fungi, and treatment outcome of dematiaceous fungal keratitis in North India. Methods: Consecutive cases of culture-proven dematiaceous fungal keratitis between January 2012 and June 2017 were retrieved from the medical record department. Risk factors, clinical signs, and outcome were registered. Results: Eighty-three patients were included. Identified dematiaceous fungal organism were Curvularia sp. (n = 55/83; 66.3%), Alternaria sp. (n = 12/83; 14.5%), Ulocladium sp. (n = 5/83; 6%), Bipolaris sp. (n = 5/83; 6.1%), Scedosporium sp. (n = 3/83; 3.6%), Acremonium sp. (n = 2/83; 2.4%), and Epicoccum sp. (n = 1/83; 1.2%). Male preponderance was reported. The most common predisposing factor was corneal trauma (67.4%). In cases associated with corneal trauma due to vegetative matter, sugarcane was the most common cause. In all, 89% of the patients were more than 30 years of age. The median infiltrate size was 8 mm2. The median time of antifungal therapy was 4.2 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-25 weeks). Complications were seen in 14 (n = 14/65; 21.5%) patients. Complete resolution of dematiaceous fungal keratitis was present in 27 (n = 27/65; 41.5%) eyes. Conclusion: Curvularia sp. and Alternaria sp. were the predominant pathogenic genera causing dematiaceous fungal keratitis. Among the causative fungi, infections due to Scedosporium sp. were associated with the worst outcomes. Ulocladium sp. and Epicoccum sp. were also identified. Both the species are not reported previously as a causal organism of dematiaceous fungal keratitis from North India.


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