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   Table of Contents      
COMMENTARY
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 1054-1055

Commentary: Dematiaceous fungal keratitis: Is it different?


Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Centre, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication25-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ritu Arora
Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Marg, New Delhi - 110 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_877_19

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How to cite this article:
Arora R. Commentary: Dematiaceous fungal keratitis: Is it different?. Indian J Ophthalmol 2019;67:1054-5

How to cite this URL:
Arora R. Commentary: Dematiaceous fungal keratitis: Is it different?. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 20];67:1054-5. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2019/67/7/1054/261059



Filamentous fungi are important etiological agents of keratitis globally. Hyaline hyphomycetes including Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. are most common, but dematiaceous fungi such as Curvularia and Bipolaris spp. though less common constitute approximately 20% of cases.[1] Commonly reported signs of fungal keratitis include feathery edges, raised lesions, hypopyon, stromal infiltrates, and less frequently, satellite lesions and ring infiltrates.[1] Lesions with macroscopic pigmentation presented with pigmented plaque like raised infiltrates are more commonly seen in dematiaceous keratitis compared to those seen in fungal keratitis of hyaline origin.[1] There occurs surface colonization of pigmented fungal filaments associated with mild-to-moderate inflammation and tissue destruction of the underlying corneal stroma. Aspergillus spp. is more likely to have a ring infiltrate, and Fusarium spp. are less likely to have a raised lesion or an endothelial plaque.[1]

Commonest isolate from dematiaceous fungal keratitis being Curvularia, reported from previous and current study.[2],[3] Alternaria, Scedosporium, and Ulocladium being other less common causative agents. Trauma with vegetative matter has been reported as the commonest cause for this keratitis. Curvularia keratitis has been clustered and reported under warm and humid climatic conditions,[4] whereas this study has correlated it with harvest season in autumn and winter.[3] Diagnosis of this keratitis is not challenging and septate hyphae are commonly seen on scraping. When presenting early, response to topical natamycin is good, as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of natamycin for curvularia keratitis is not high.[5] Management of Ulocladium and Scedosporium keratitis being challenging might need penetrating keratoplasty or evisceration in severe cases.

Comparative analysis of diagnosis and management of dematiaceous keratitis and hyaline keratitis in future may give better idea of prognosis and outcomes.



 
  References Top

1.
Oldenburg CE, Prajna VN, Prajna L, Krishnan T, Mascarenhas J, Vaitilingam CM et al. Clinical signs in dematiaceous and hyaline fungal keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol 2011;95:750-1.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Garg P, Gopinathan U, Choudhary K, Rao GN. Keratomycosis: Clinical and microbiologic experience with dematiaceous fungi. Ophthalmology 2000;107:574-80.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kumar A, Khurana A, Sharma M, Chauhan L. Causative fungi and treatment outcome of dematiaceous fungal keratitis in North India. Indian J Ophthalmol 2019;67:1048-53.  Back to cited text no. 3
  [Full text]  
4.
Wilhelmus KR. Climatology of dematiaceous fungal keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140:1156-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pradhan L, Sharma S, Nalamada S, Sahu SK, Das S, Garg P. Natamycin in the treatment of keratomycosis: Correlation of treatment outcome and in vitro susceptibility of fungal isolates. Indian J Ophthalmol 2011;59:512-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
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