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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 13  |  Page : 27-31

Spectrum of Eye Disease in Diabetes (SPEED) in India: A prospective facility-based study. Report # 3. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

1 Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 L V Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 L V Prasad Eye Institute, KAR Campus, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
5 Indian School of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
6 Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Harsha Bhattacharjee
Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Assam
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1934_19

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Purpose: To determine the proportion of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending large eye care facilities across India who have retinal vascular occlusion (RVO). Methods: A 6-month descriptive, multicenter, observational hospital-based study of people was being presented to the 14 eye care facilities in India. The retina-specific component of comprehensive eye examination included stereoscopic biomicroscopy, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography was also available when needed. Data recording of the duration of diabetes, hypertension (HTN), stroke, and other variables was obtained from the medical history. The statistical analysis included frequencies, mean, and standard deviations for continuous variables. Odds ratio (OR) and multivariate analysis were undertaken to assess the associations between risk factors and RVO. Results: The study recruited 11,182 consecutive patients (22,364 eyes) with T2DM. About 59.0% (n = 6697) were male. The mean age was 58.2 ± 10.6 years. In this cohort, RVO was detected in 3.4% (n = 380) of patients; 67.6% (n = 257) of them had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and the remaining 32.4% (n = 123) had central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The frequency of unilateral BRVO (n = 220, 85.6%) and unilateral CRVO (n = 106, 86.18%) was much common. Unilateral RVO was more frequent (n = 326, 85.8%) than bilateral diseases (n = 54, 14.2%) (χ2 = 126.95, P < 0.001). Ischemic CRVO was more common (n = 103, 73.6%) than nonischemic CRVO (n = 37, 26.4%). Macula-involving BRVO was found in 58.5% (n = 172) of cases, suggesting more than 50% of cases in RVO carries a risk of severe vision loss. The duration of diabetes apparently had no influence on the occurrence of RVO. On the multivariate analysis, a history of HTN [OR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3–2.1; P = 0.001) and stroke (OR: 5.1; 95% CI: 2.1–12.4; P < 0.001) was associated with RVO. Conclusion: RVO is a frequent finding in people with T2DM. History of stroke carries the highest risk followed by HTN. The management of people with T2DM and RVO must also include comanagement of all associated systemic conditions.

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