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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 769-775

ToRCH-screening in pediatric cataract revisited: A North Indian tertiary care centre study

Department of Ophthalmology, SGRR-Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tarannum Shakeel
Lane No. 2, House No. 13, Aashirwaad Enclave, Dehradun, Uttarakhand - 248 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1141_19

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Purpose: To analyze and report ToRCH-serology screening profile (Toxoplasma gondii [TOX], rubella [RV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV-I/II]) in pediatric cataract. Methods: In this prospective analytical study, 1,026 consecutive children were screened, of which 46 children with clinically diagnosed congenital (n = 26) and developmental cataract (n = 20) were included. Post-traumatic and familial cataracts were excluded. Sera of all children were tested both qualitatively and quantitatively for IgG/IgM-antibodies against ToRCH agents in a sequential manner. Results: Overall, IgM/IgG-seropositivity against ≥1 ToRCH agent was reported in 91.3% (42/46) children. IgM (±IgG) positivity against ≥1 ToRCH agent was reported in 26.08% (12/46) children (nine congenital and three developmental cataract; P = 0.18), which included 8.7% (4/46) children reported positive against ≥2 agents. Finally, 13% (6/46) children were reported to be sero-clinical-positive (three were infants and three were >1 year age, P = 0.55; five congenital and one developmental cataract, P = 0.21). Either alone or combined, RV attributed to the majority (50%; 6/12) of the IgM (±IgG) and sero-clinical-positive (50%; 3/6) children. None of the children were HSV-II IgM-positive. Laboratory-confirmed congenital rubella syndrome was reported in 4.3% (2/46) children. One sero-clinical-positive infant with rare coexisting bilateral persistent fetal vasculature was also reported. IgG-alone positivity was reported highest with CMV in 67.4% (31/46) children, whereas 43.4% (20/46) children were found nonimmune to RV. Conclusion: The current study emphasizes the need to interpret ToRCH-screening in pediatric cataract with caution. Interpretation should include both serial qualitative and quantitative assays in tandem with clinical correlation to minimize the diagnostic errors. Clinicians should remain vigilant regarding sero-clinical-positivity in older children too who might pose a threat to the spread of infection.

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