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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July 2017
Volume 65 | Issue 7
Page Nos. 543-644

Online since Thursday, July 20, 2017

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Let's face it: The potential of periocular aesthetics Highly accessed article p. 543
Santosh G Honavar
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Using intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) – Indian Scenario Highly accessed article p. 545
Atul Kumar, Raghav Ravani
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A tale of two drugs: Off and on-label p. 549
Raja Narayanan, Santosh G Honavar
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Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty p. 551
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Diva Kant Misra, Nilutparna Deori
The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.
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Quantitative physiological measurements to evaluate the response of antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment in patients with neovascular diseases p. 559
In Hwan Hong, Sung Pyo Park
Antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment is still used intravitreally worldwide for various neovascular diseases, despite other available, approved treatments. We performed a systematic search of the literature focused on visual physiology studies. We used the online biomedical search engine PubMed and searched key words including “M-chart,” “Preferential Hyperacuity Perimetry,” “microperimetry,” (MP) “electroretinography,” and “contrast sensitivity” to estimate treatment efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments in a quantitative manner. Many studies were identified which used a variety of methodologies, disease entities, injected agents, and patient populations, making it difficult to obtain a direct comparison of their results. However, favorable functional outcomes achieved using current quantitative methods would lend further confidence to the effectiveness of a treat-and-extend protocol using intravitreal anti-VEGF for the management of patients with neovascular diseases. Despite anti-VEGF's wide use, a well-designed longitudinal multicenter study to systematically evaluate and compare different physiological methods or parameters in patients with neovascular diseases is still lacking, though it would benefit therapeutic decisions.
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Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants p. 569
Neeti Gupta, Prerna Upadhyay
Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC) in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2%) aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2%) was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5%) patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%), phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%), and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%). The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3%) in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3) 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2) 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.
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Correlation between the graft–host junction of penetrating keratoplasty by anterior segment-optical coherence tomography and the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism p. 574
Ghada Azab Nassar, Shaimaa Abd El Salam Arfeen
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the alignment pattern of the graft–host junction after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) by anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to correlate this pattern with the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism. Methods: This retrospective observational study was carried out on forty patients who underwent PK from February 2013 to August 2014. AS-OCT was performed, and the graft–host junctions were classified into well-apposed junction, malapposed junction, and equally apposed junction. Mal-apposition is subdivided into gap and protrusion. The correlations between clinical characteristics, wound profiles from the AS-OCT, and the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism by Sirius camera (Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici [CSO], Florence, Italy (CSO, Sirius), were analyzed. Results: Graft–host junctions from forty patients were analyzed; 18 eyes had well-apposed junctions, ten eyes had malapposed junctions, and 12 had equally apposed junctions. The mean cylinder was −9.44 ± −4.00D in well-apposed group, −13.40 ± −5.01D in malapposed group, and −4.67 ± −0.94D in equally apposed group. Alignment pattern of the graft–host junction correlated significantly with the magnitude of astigmatism (P = 0.034). Preoperative corneal diseases did not have an effect on the magnitude of astigmatism (P = 0.123). Conclusion: The alignment pattern of the graft–host junction by AS-OCT can explain the postoperative astigmatism after PK where it correlates significantly with the magnitude of astigmatism.
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Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements using Goldmann tonometer, I-care pro, Tonopen XL, and Schiotz tonometer in patients after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty p. 579
Oded Ohana, David Varssano, Gabi Shemesh
Purpose: Post-Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) patients are prone for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations and glaucoma. Corneal characteristics influence various IOP measuring devices in various ways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between four different IOP measuring devices: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), I-care pro, Tonopen XL, and Schiotz tonometr in patients who underwent DSEK. Methods: This was a prospective comparative study using a convenience cohort of post-DSEK patients with compact grafts. Post-DSEK patients had IOP measured using GAT, I-care Pro, Tonopen XL, and Schiotz tonometer. Measurements were compared and agreement assessed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparison of means as variables did not show a normal distribution. Bland–Altman plots were used for assessing agreement. Results: Thirty eyes of 24 patients were included in the study. Mean time from DSEK surgery was 25.31 ± 13.05 months. Mean IOP with GAT, I-care pro, Tonopen XL, and Schiotz tonometer was 13.99 ± 3.76, 13.92 ± 3.36, 13.31 ± 3.89, and 12.83 ± 4.07, respectively. GAT, I-care pro, and Tonopen XL had similar mean IOP measurements (P = 0.135 and P = 0.551, respectively), while Schiotz tonometry measurements were higher (P = 0.046). Bland–Altman plots show good agreement between GAT, Tonopen XL, and I-care pro. GAT and Schiotz tonometry show less agreement, with large variations in the differences of measured IOP. Conclusions: IOP measurements in post-DSEK patients showed good agreement between GAT and either Tonopen XL or I-care pro. Schiotz tonometer has large variations in this patient group. IOP measurements and IOP difference between devices were not dependent on central corneal thickness.
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Efficacy and safety of intraoperative intracameral mydriasis in manual small incision cataract surgery - A randomized controlled trial p. 584
K Ajay, Srinivasan Saranya, Divya Dabir Sundaresh, HR Hithashree, BC Hemalatha, Malavika Krishnaswamy, Sathyendranath B Shetty
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of intracameral mydriatic solution, as compared to preoperative topical mydriatics, in patients undergoing manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) under peribulbar anesthesia. To assess the sustainability of intracameral mydriasis in MSICS by monitoring pupil size at specific junctures during the surgery. Methods: This trial recruited 127 patients, who underwent MSICS under peribulbar block. Mydriasis in topical group was achieved with preoperative topical dilating drops while patients in intracameral group were taken up for surgery without dilation, and mydriasis was achieved intraoperatively with intracameral solution. Pupil sizes were measured serially, at six different junctures during surgery. Time duration of surgery, any intraoperative complications and first postoperative day visual acuity, corneal edema score, and anterior chamber inflammation score were noted in all patients. Results: Mean pupil size just before peribulbar block was 7.3 mm in topical group and 3.3 mm in intracameral group (P < 0.001). Mean pupil size in intracameral group increased to 7.3 mm 30 s after injecting intracameral dilating solution. Mean pupil size in both groups progressively reduced, reaching 5.5 mm (topical group) and 6.2 mm (intracameral group) just before intraocular lens implantation (P = 0.001), and measured 5.1 mm and 5.5 mm, respectively, at the end of surgery (P = 0.048). On first postoperative day, there was no significant difference in distribution of corneal edema scores, AC inflammation scores, and in median logMAR visual acuity between the two groups. Conclusions: MSICS can be performed effectively and safely utilizing intracameral mydriatic solution, without the use of preoperative dilating drops. Trial registration: CTRI/2016/06/007036
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Four-year incidence and progression of visual impairment in a South Indian population with diabetes p. 589
Sangeetha Srinivasan, Rajiv Raman, Suganeswari Ganesan, Rupak Roy, Viswanathan Natarajan, Tarun Sharma
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the 4-year incidence and progression of visual impairment (VI) and the associated risk factors for incident VI in a South Indian population with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 634 participants with type 2 diabetes were found eligible after 4 years. Visual acuity (VA) was estimated using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. VA in the better eye was considered for the assessment of VI based on the World Health Organization criteria. Mild VI was defined as VA <20/40 but up to 20/60, moderate VI as VA <20/60 but up to 20/200, severe VI as VA <20/200 but up to 10/200, and blindness as VA worse than 10/200. Results: The 4-year incidence of any VI, mild VI, moderate VI, severe VI, and blindness was 21.7%, 18.3%, 3.4%, 0.0%, and 0.0%, respectively; of the 13 participants with VI at baseline, 12 (92%) showed worsening/progression of VI on follow-up. Multiple logistic regression showed that nuclear cataract of grades >4.0 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.612 [1.148–5.942], P = 0.022) and lower socioeconomic score (OR: 0.965 [95% confidence interval, (0.933-0.998)], P = 0.040) were associated with the risk of future incident VI. Refractive error (47%) and cataract (30%) were identified as the leading causes of incident VI at follow-up. Conclusions: VI seems to be a significant problem among diabetic participants in the South Indian population. Refractive error and cataract are the leading but treatable causes of incident VI in this population and would benefit from intervention.
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Real-world evidence of safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in an Indian scenario p. 596
Prashant Jain, Jay Sheth, Giridhar Anantharaman, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as an off-label pharmacotherapeutic agent for various ocular conditions. Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on 3806 injections of 1761 patients that were administered with intravitreal bevacizumab injection at a tertiary eye care center in India. The injections were administered on a pro re nata basis for various indications such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.8 ± 11.59 years. A total of 59.2% of the patients were men and 40.8% women. The most common indications for which the injection was administered were DME (27.5%), AMD (26%), and branch RVO (12.3%). Among the ocular side effects, endophthalmitis was seen in three eyes (0.08%), retinal breaks in none of the eyes whereas 35 eyes had a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg (0.9%). Preexisting glaucoma was present in four eyes while remaining 31 eyes did not have any history of glaucoma. IOP rise was significantly more in eyes with preexisting glaucoma as compared to nonglaucomatous eyes (P = 0.04). No systemic adverse events were noted in our study population. Conclusion: Our study provides real-world evidence regarding the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin). These data suggest that bevacizumab is a safe and economical pharmacotherapeutic agent that can be administered for a variety of ocular disorders. Analyzing the safety of bevacizumab is necessary for a developing country like India as the majority of the population cannot afford the costly ranibizumab as compared to bevacizumab for ocular healthcare.
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To assess knowledge and attitude of parents toward children suffering from strabismus in Indian subcontinent p. 603
Anirudh Singh, Vipin Rana, Sagarika Patyal, Santosh Kumar, Sanjay K Mishra, Vijay K Sharma
Purpose: Strabismus and anisometropia are the most common causes of amblyopia. It can be easily prevented or treated if detected early. With the changing socio-cultural-economic milieu of the society, the perspectives of strabismus in society are gradually changing but still adequate knowledge, awareness, and attitude of parents toward strabismus will help in preventing amblyopia and aid in the proper psychosocial adaptation of such children. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitude of parents toward children suffering from strabismus. Methods: A prospective study was carried out from January 1 to February 29, 2016, through a structured questionnaire to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of parents of children suffering from strabismus. Results: One hundred and twenty parents of children with strabismus were interviewed through a questionnaire. Education level of 78 parents was less than graduation (60%) and of 42 parents (40%) was graduation or higher. The majority of the parents, i.e., 116 (96.67%) were bothered due to strabismus. One hundred and one (84.17%) parents felt that their child's strabismus was noticed by others during interaction. Seventy-four (61.67%) parents felt that their children will have difficulty in making friends. Ninety (75%) parents felt uncomfortable if someone asked something about their child's strabismus. One hundred and ten (91.67%) parents considered strabismus as cosmetic stigma. Conclusion: Some parents, especially from the lower educated segment, had poor understanding of strabismus, thus resulting in late presentation and ineffective countermeasures. The key to prevent strabismic amblyopia and its psychosocial impacts is to provide health education regarding strabismus.
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Stability and effects of muscle transplantation for very large angle esotropia: A study of 22 patients p. 607
Jitendra Nenumal Jethani, Nirzari Shah, Sonal Amin, Monika Jethani
Purpose: A very large angle esotropia is characterized by an angle more than 80 prism diopters (pd). A single eye surgery would not correct such a large angle. Supramaximal recessions and resection would lead to restriction of ocular motility. We present a series of 22 patients with large angle esotropia treated with muscle transplantation. Methods: A total of 22 patients (14 males and 8 females) were included in the study. All the patients had a minimum of 80 base out deviation in primary position. All patients underwent thorough preoperative orthoptic checkup and refraction. The patients were followed up on day 1, day 30, at 6 months, at 1 year, and 2 years. All the patients underwent standard muscle transplantation, where the resected extra stump of lateral rectus was transplanted to the medial rectus using 6-0 prolene which was recessed by a standard recession technique. Results: The mean age of the 22 patients was 32.21 ± 13.1 years. The mean preoperative angle was 92.4 ± 13.5 pd base out. The mean postoperative angle at 2-year follow-up was 12.3 ± 9.9 pd. The average correction achieved per mm was 4.1 ± 0.3 pd. The adduction restriction was <1 in all the patients at the end of 2 years except one patient. The abduction was normal in all the patients. Conclusion: The true muscle transplantation is a safe alternate option for large angle esotropia when uniocular surgery is desired. The surgical results are stable in long-term and therefore a viable option.
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A rare case of cleft number nine associated with atypical cleft number two p. 610
Shivanand Chanabasu Bubanale, Santosh B Kurbet, Linda Maria Genoveva De Piedade Sequeira
The incidence of the craniofacial cleft is rare ranging between 1.43 and 4.85/100,000 births. Tessier number nine cleft being the rarest, there are a few reports of detailed ophthalmologic examinations performed in them. In this study, 1-day-old female neonate delivered by normal vaginal delivery at term, weighing 1480 g presented with right eye dystopia, cleft extending through the lateral third of the upper eyelid, brow ending at the temporal region, conjunctival congestion, clear cornea 10 mm in diameter, normal anterior chamber, pupil 2 mm reactive to light, clear lens, and normal fundus. Cleft extended downward from the right medial canthus involving the nasal ala and left forearm had an oblique-crease with camptodactyly. We thus report a case of anterior segment abnormality with an oblique craniofacial cleft. The cause of which is unclear, amniotic band syndrome being a possible cause.
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Epipalpebral conjunctival chondroid choristoma: Interesting developmental anomaly presenting in an adult p. 613
Pushpanjali R Ojha, Archana Hemant Deshpande, Chitrawati Bal Gargade, Jitendra Singh Nigam
Ocular choristomas are uncommon lesions chiefly presenting in children. Choristomas may contain dermal and epidermal components, muscle, cartilage, bone, etc. They are usually seen in epibulbar conjunctiva, but epipalpebral location is uncommon. We present a case of epipalpebral chondroid choristoma presenting in an adult patient.
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An unusual presentation of lacrimal gland dirofilariasis p. 615
Amit Sethi, Vani Puri, Natasha Dogra
Dirofilariasis is a helminthic infection caused by filarial parasite of the genus Dirofilaria. It is a common zoonotic disease mostly affecting canines and uncommon in humans. It is endemic to Mediterranean countries, with few reports from other parts of the world. The clinical forms in humans are pulmonary, subcutaneous, and ocular. Ocular involvement is rare. We report a case of lacrimal gland dirofilariasis, an unusual ocular presentation which masquerades as a lacrimal gland tumor. Ours would be the third reported case in the world and first in India. This case was managed with excision of the lacrimal gland mass. Postoperatively the patient recovered completely and there has been no recurrence in the 1-year follow-up.
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Topography-guided neutralization technique for the management of flap complication in laser in situ keratomileusis p. 618
Rohit Shetty, Rushad Shroff, Tushar Grover, T Roshan, Chaitra Jayadev
A 29-year-old male was referred following a flap loss after the creation of a thin, irregular flap with a visual acuity of logMAR 0.1 with −2.0 DS−2.75 DC × 175°. Corneal topography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed an irregular corneal curvature and epithelial profile. Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) followed by Topography - Guided Custom Ablation Treatment (TCAT), as a modification of the topographic neutralization technique protocol, was planned to regularize the corneal surface and treat the residual refractive error. Postoperatively, the patient showed a best-corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0 with a refractive error of −1 DC × 90°. Regularization of topography and epithelial thickness was seen along with a reduction in astigmatism and higher order aberrations. We report the use of PTK followed by TCAT as a novel method to treat a case of intraoperative flap loss during laser in situ keratomileusis.
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Late onset Descemet's membrane detachment 20 years after penetrating keratoplasty p. 621
Sharon DíSouza, Narpat Solanki, KR Sushma, Priyank Solanki
This paper reports a case of spontaneous Descemet's Membrane (DM ) detachment 20-years after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The patient presented with acute onset blurred vision in the right eye associated with mild ocular discomfort. There was no prior history of trauma. The patient had undergone PK in the right eye 20 years back. Detailed ophthalmic examination showed best corrected visual acuity of hand movements close to face in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. The right eye showed diffuse graft edema but no congestion, epithelial defect, or loss of continuity of graft-host junction to suggest a traumatic etiology. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed DM break with a detachment in the right eye, which was treated with an intracameral C3F8 injection. DM break with detachment post-PK has been very sparsely reported in literature and is an important differential to remember when faced with an edematous graft, in addition to the diagnosis of graft rejection or failure.
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A rare case of overlapping Sturge–Weber syndrome and Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome associated with bilateral refractory childhood glaucoma p. 623
Manju R Pillai, PP Hasini, Ashish Ahuja, SR Krishnadas
A 6-year-old girl presented with blurred vision and was found to have elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic disc damage in both eyes. She also displayed capillary malformations on the face (port-wine stain), upper back and all four limbs, angiomatosis in the brain and had hypertrophy of the left upper and lower limbs typical of overlapping Sturge–Weber syndrome and Klippel–Trenaunay syndromes. She was initially managed with IOP lowering topical medications but required trabeculectomy in the right eye followed by Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes. Despite multiple measures over a 7-year period, her IOP still remained uncontrolled with gradual progression of the glaucomatous damage. This case exhibits a very rare occurrence of overlapping syndromes reported only a handful of times in literature. Most cases with Sturge–Weber syndrome have ipsilateral glaucoma affecting the eye on the same side as the port-wine stain. This case presented with bilateral refractory childhood glaucomas, which is exceedingly rare.
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Bilateral normal tension glaucoma: Can this be nutritional? p. 625
Sirisha Senthil, Kiranmaye Turaga
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) also known as low tension glaucoma, presents with optic nerve head and visual field damage in the absence of high intraocular pressure (<21 mmHg). There are several patients of NTG seen in our clinics who have repeatable visual field defects, which may or may not correlate with the disc appearance, but are labeled as glaucoma. Ruling out ischemic, nutritional, and other causes of one-time damage are important before diagnosing an NTG. We report 3 such cases that were misdiagnosed and referred as NTG. All three cases were not glaucomatous and had typical features of nutritional optic neuropathy. The typical clinical features, visual field and imaging abnormalities seen in these two conditions and their management is highlighted in this article. Misdiagnosis leads to inappropriate investigations and treatment, but more importantly would lead to worsening of undiagnosed underlying disease.
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Angioid streaks in a case of Camurati–Engelmann disease p. 628
BetŁl Tugcu, Taha Sezer, Ahmet Elbay, Hakan Özdemir
Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED) is a rare autosomal dominant disease with various phenotypic expressions. The hallmark of the disease is bilateral symmetric diaphyseal hyperostosis of the long bones with progressive involvement of the metaphysis. Ocular manifestations occur rarely and mainly result from bony overgrowth of the orbit and optic canal stenosis. We report a case of CED showing angioid streaks (ASs) in both fundi with no macular involvement and discuss the possible theories of the pathogenesis of AS in this disease.
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Ring-shaped myelinated retinal nerve fibers at fovea p. 630
Serdar Ozates, Mehmet Yasin Teke
We aim to report an unusual case of myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MRNFs) at fovea. A 39-year-old woman presented with visual impairment and her visual acuity was 20/80 in the right eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed MRNF lesions at inferior and superior poles of optic disc in the right eye. Furthermore, a ring-shaped MRNF lesion with feathery edges was observed at fovea. MRNF lesions are rarely seen at macula, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of an MRNF lesion at fovea.
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Case report of a secondary macular hole closure after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in a patient with retinal pigment epithelial detachment p. 632
Marcus Werner Storch, Hans Hoerauf
We describe a case of macular hole (MH) closure after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for an underlying pigment epithelial detachment (PED) due to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The 73-year-old Caucasian female presented with reduced visual acuity (20/80) of the left eye and metamorphopsia for approximately 6 months. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a subfoveal PED due to AMD with an associated MH. To treat the exudative component of the pathology, we started intravitreal bevacizumab therapy, consecutively leading to reduction of the height of PED and allowing closure of the MH. Detachment recurred during further follow-up, but the MH remained closed. MHs and exudative AMD are common diseases, which rarely occur simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge (search via PubMed for “MH,” “PED,” “age-related macular degeneration”), no other case with the persistent closure of an MH associated with PED during intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy and despite recurrent PED has been published to date.
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Drug-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis following dexamethasone intravitreal implant p. 634
Prabhushanker Mahalingam, Tasneem Tameem Topiwalla, Geetha Ganesan
A 60-year-old female came to our hospital with defective vision due to persistent diabetic macular edema and was treated with intravitreal ozurdex implant in the right eye. Three days later, the patient presented with diminution of vision, ocular pain, congestion, and hypopyon with no fundus view. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitritis, and diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made. Subsequently, 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed along with intravitreal vancomycin and amikacin and removal of implant. On culture, there was growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus which was resistant to ofloxacin antibiotic. A week following treatment, there was significant improvement in the patient's sign and symptoms with improvement in vision. Our case demonstrated that acute endophthalmitis can occur following dexamethasone intravitreal implant.
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No split, no tenotomy transposition procedure for complete abducens palsy p. 636
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy
Abducens palsy is one of the commonly encountered cranial nerve palsies in strabismus clinic. For large-angle esotropia, due to complete abducens palsies, various vertical recti transposition (VRT) procedures have been described. Hummelsheim and Jensen's procedure are especially popular among them. Risk of anterior segment ischemia and induced vertical deviation postVRT prompt to search for better procedures to correct the esotropia and also improve the abduction. Modified Nishida's procedure (no split, no tenotomy transposition) is one of the newly described procedure in this direction. We describe three cases of complete abducens nerve palsy treated by this procedure.
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Safe surgery checklist for cataract surgery in ophthalmic day centres in India p. 639
Srinivas V Hirekatur, Sindhu H Manjunath
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Comment on: Visual function of children with visual and other disabilities in Oman: A case series p. 640
Swetha Sara Philip
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Erratum: Allergen specific exposure associated with high immunoglobulin E and eye rubbing predisposes to progression of keratoconus p. 642

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Erratum: Immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery: A 5 year retrospective analysis of 2470 eyes from a tertiary care eye center in South India p. 644

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