Therapeutic opportunities to manage COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 infection: Present and future
Rohit Shetty1, Arkasubhra Ghosh2, Santosh G Honavar3, Pooja Khamar1, Swaminathan Sethu2
1 Narayana Nethralaya, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 GROW Research Laboratory, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Centre for Sight, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
GROW Research Laboratory, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Narayana Nethralaya, #258/A Hosur Road, Narayana Health City, Bommasandra, Bengaluru - 560 099, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
A severe form of respiratory disease – COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has evolved into a pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The unabated spread of the disease is due to lack of vaccine and effective therapeutic agents against this novel virus. Hence, the situation demands an immediate need to explore all the plausible therapeutic and prophylactic strategies that can be made available to stem the spread of the disease. Towards this effort, the current review outlines the key aspects of the pathobiology associated with the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients, which includes a viral response phase and an exaggerated host response phase. The review also summarizes therapeutic agents that are currently being explored along with those with potential for consideration. The broad groups of therapeutic agents discussed include those that: (i) block viral entry to host cells, (ii) block viral replication and survival in host cells, and (iii) dampen exaggerated host immune response. The various kinds of pharmaceutical prophylactic options that may be followed to prevent COVID-19 have also been discussed.