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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   1993| July-September  | Volume 41 | Issue 3  
 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Unusual orbital foreign bodies
PK Agarwal, Hemant Kumar, PK Srivastava
July-September 1993, 41(3):125-127
PMID:8125544
Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.
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CASE REPORT
Orbital injuries in children : Play-related
SR Shriwas, Aung Z Kinzha
July-September 1993, 41(3):129-130
PMID:8125546
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Congenital microcoria : A study in three generations
Sandeep Saxena, RC Saxena
July-September 1993, 41(3):130-132
PMID:8125547
  3 2,635 0
Schwannoma of the orbit
AK Grover, A Rastogi, K Uma Chaturvedi, AK Gupta
July-September 1993, 41(3):128-129
PMID:8125545
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CURRENT OPHTHALMOLOGY
Treatment of uveitis with immunosuppressive agents
Narsing A Rao, Rajeev Buddi
July-September 1993, 41(3):107-113
PMID:8125541
The spectrum of uveitis constitutes one of the major causes of blindness. Advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms have altered the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The most notable development is the increasing usage of several immunosuppressive agents. A systematic approach in making accurate diagnosis is central to employment of specific, more effective treatment. One should be cognizant of the potential benefits and risks of each of these agents before exposing the patients to these very potent drugs.
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EDITORIAL
Current concepts of auto-immune diseases and their therapeutic implications with particular reference to uveitis
UN Das
July-September 1993, 41(3):105-106
PMID:8125540
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OPHTHALMOLOGY PRACTICE
Practical concepts in the management of uveitis
Jyotirmay Biswas
July-September 1993, 41(3):133-141
PMID:8125548
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology
Jyotirmay Biswas, Nirmala Subramaniam
July-September 1993, 41(3):114-116
PMID:7510268
Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases), lid lesions (3 cases), and intraocular tissue (1 case). The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100%) observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions
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Saccadic underaction in concomitant strabismus and Hering's law : a new neurophysiologic model for binocular motor correspondence
Pradeep Sharma, Prem Prakash, Vimala Menon
July-September 1993, 41(3):117-120
PMID:8125542
Hering's law of equal innervation has remained so far as an universal truth with no scientific basis. However, recent reports of Saccadic underactions in concomitant strabismus indicating asymmetric ocular motor innervation is in contradiction to the law. In an effort to understand the inequalities of binocular movements, we propose a neurophysiologic model for both normal and abnormal eye movements. The model hypothesizes that any binocular movement results from the yoking of two monocular reflex loops corresponding to the two eyes, during the plastic stage of development of ocular motor reflexes. The retinal target discrepancy triggers the reflex loop resulting in a monocular corrective movement. As there is a common binocular field, the stimuli to the two eyes are similar causing a similar binocular corrective movement. In abnormal cases coupling of asymmetric motor loops may occur resulting in alternate or unilateral saccadic underactions
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Botulinum toxin in the treatment of paralytic strabismus and essential blepharospasm
Ravi Thomas, Annie Mathai, B Rajeev, Subir Sen, Pushpa Jacob
July-September 1993, 41(3):121-124
PMID:8125543
As an alternative to conventional medical and surgical modalities that have met little success in the treatment of paralytic strabismus and essential blepharospasm, we explored the use of botulinum toxin as a treatment of choice in these two disorders. We used botulinum toxin in three patients with paralytic strabismus and in nine patients with essential blepharospasm. In three patients with paralytic strabismus, the botulinum toxin was injected into the ipsilateral antagonist of the paralysed muscle. The preinjection deviations ranged from 18 to 60 prism diopters. Two of these three patients achieved orthotropia around the thirtieth day and thereafter maintained it. The third patient became orthotropic on the eighteenth day, but deviation recurred and therefore required another injection of toxin. In nine patients with essential blepharospasm, botulinum toxin was injected into the orbicularis oculi muscles. Both objective and subjective improvement occurred in all nine patients within seven days and the effect lasted 12 to 15 weeks. Further injection of the toxin produced extremely beneficial results. However, the only significant complication that we encountered in both groups of strabismus and blepharospasm was ptosis, which was usually partial and temporary. From our experience, we advocate the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of essential blepharospasm.
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