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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2004| October-December  | Volume 52 | Issue 4  
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Quantification of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in normal Indian eyes with optical coherence tomography.
P Sony, R Sihota, Hem K Tewari, P Venkatesh, R Singh
October-December 2004, 52(4):303-9
PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the normative values for peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT 3) in Indian subjects. METHODS: The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer of 146 normal subjects was imaged on OCT 3 in this cross-sectional study. Thickness of the RNFL around the disc was determined with three 3.4 mm diameter circle OCT scan. The RNFL thickness was measured in four quadrants; superior, nasal, inferior and temporal. The data was analysed using SAS commercial statistical software. Influence of age and gender was evaluated on various measured parameters using unpaired t test, one-way analysis variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: One hundred and forty six eyes of 146 patients, 84 males and 62 females were studied. The average RNFL thickness in the sample population under study was 104.27 +/- 8.51 (95% CI 87.25-121). The RNFL was thickest in the inferior quadrant, followed by the superior quadrant, and progressively less in nasal and temporal quadrant. The difference between inferior and superior quadrants was not statistically significant. Age had a significant negative correlation with average RNFL thickness (r = -0.321, P = 0.000) and with average superior (r = -0.233, P = 0.005) and average inferior RNFL thickness (r = -0.234, P = 0.004). There was no effect of gender on various RNFL thickness parameters. CONCLUSIONS: RNFL thickness is significantly correlated with age, but not with gender. This normative database of RNFL thickness with OCT in Indian eyes is similar to previously reported values in normal Asian eyes.
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Amniotic membrane transplantation for reconstruction of corneal epithelial surface in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.
Virender S Sangwan, Himanshu P Matalia, Geeta K Vemuganti, Gullapalli N Rao
October-December 2004, 52(4):281-5
Purpose: To assess the efficacy of amniotic membrane for treatment of partial limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Methods: Medical records of four patients with partial LSCD who underwent pannus resection and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) were reviewed for ocular surface stability and improvement in visual acuity. Clinico-histopathological correlation was done with the resected pannus tissue. Results: All the eyes exhibited stable corneal epithelial surface by an average of 7 weeks postoperatively with improvement in subjective symptoms. Best corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative (range: 6/9p-6/120) to postoperative (range: 6/6p-6/15) by an average of 4.5 lines on Snellen visual acuity charts. Histopathological examination of excised tissue showed features of conjunctivalisation. Conclusion: Amniotic membrane transplantation appears to be an effective means of reconstructing the corneal epithelial surface and for visual rehabilitation of patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency. It may be considered as an alternative primary procedure to limbal transplantation in these cases.
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A review of genetic and structural understanding of the role of myocilin in primary open angle glaucoma.
J Kanagavalli, E Pandaranayaka, Subbaiah R Krishnadas, S Krishnaswamy, P Sundaresan
October-December 2004, 52(4):271-80
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma and the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Discovery of the candidate gene MYOC (TIGR/MYOC) encoding the protein myocilin, believed to have a role in cytoskeletal function, might play a key role in understanding the pathogenesis of POAG. MYOC is expressed in many ocular tissues, including trabecular meshwork (TM), a specialised eye tissue essential in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP). Later it was shown to be the trabecular meshwork inducible-glucocorticoid response protein (TIGR). Mutations in MYOC have been identified as the cause of hereditary juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). The unprocessed myocilin with signal peptide is a 55-kDa protein with 504 amino acids. Mature myocilin is known to form multimers. Wild type myocilin protein is normally secreted into the trabecular extracellular matrix (ECM) and there appears to interact with various ECM materials. It is believed that the deposition of high amounts of myocilin in trabecular ECM could affect aqueous outflow either by physical barrier and/or through cell-mediated process leading to elevation of IOP. The N-terminal region of the myocilin has sequence similarity to myosin (muscle protein) and the C-terminal of the protein has an olfactomedin-like domain. Structural and genetic studies of the MYOC gene and its protein product along with molecular modeling could lead to better understanding of the pathogenesis of POAG. This review highlights the current understanding of myocilin and the relevance of genetic and structural work.
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Clinical resistance of Staphylococcus keratitis to ciprofloxacin monotherapy.
V Sharma, S Sharma, P Garg, Gullapalli N Rao
October-December 2004, 52(4):287-92
PURPOSE: To review the in vitro susceptibility and the clinical response to 0.3% ciprofloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. METHODS: This is a non-comparative case series derived from a prospectively collected database and analysed retrospectively. One hundred and twenty one patients presenting in the cornea service of LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, between January 1993 and December 2000, and identified to have S. aureus keratitis were included in the study. All patients had received slitlamp evaluation of the cornea and diagnostic microbiologic workup. They were treated with topical antimicrobial therapy based on smear and culture results. All S. aureus isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion and those resistant to ciprofloxacin were confirmed by testing for minimum inhibitory concentration. The patients' clinical response to the antimicrobial therapy was noted. RESULTS: Twenty-five (20.6%) of 121 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin on in vitro susceptibility testing were further analysed in this study. Fifteen of these 25 (60%) patients were initially treated with topical ciprofloxacin. Twelve of 15 (80%) patients showed no clinical improvement (3-8 days). Based on antibiotic susceptibility results, the antibiotic therapy was modified to fortified cefazolin and gentamicin in seven (58.3%), to vancomycin in one and to chloramphenicol in four cases. The corneal infiltrate resolved in 11 (73.3%) of 15 cases. Two patients required penetrating keratoplasty (PK), one required evisceration, and one patient was lost to follow up. Nine of 25 patients were initially started on fortified cefazolin and gentamicin therapy based on smear positive for gram-positive cocci; this resulted in resolution of infiltrate in 44.4% (4/9) while three required change of antibiotics (vancomycin-2, chloramphenicol-1), one required PK and one patient was lost to follow up. One of 25 patients started and continued on chloramphenicol, showed no response and required PK. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a significant resistance of S. aureus to many antibiotics including ciprofloxacin and highlights the need for an alternative to ciprofloxacin monotherapy for the treatment of staphylococcal keratitis.
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Late dislocation of LASIK flap following fingernail injury.
M Srinivasan, S Prasad, N Venkatesh Prajna
October-December 2004, 52(4):327-8
A case of traumatic flap displacement with a fingernail injury four years after LASIK is reported.
  6 14,803 3
Juvenile rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
M Nagpal, K Nagpal, P Rishi, Pran N Nagpal
October-December 2004, 52(4):297-302
PURPOSE: To review the clinical features, evaluate visual, and anatomical outcomes and potential complications following surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in juveniles. METHODS: Retrospective, consecutive case series of children and young adults (birth through 18 years) who underwent surgerys for RRD between February 1999 and January 2002. RESULTS: The authors reviewed a consecutive series of 111 eyes of 105 juveniles [86 (77.47%) eyes belonged to male and 25 (22.52%) to female subjects] operated for RRD. The mean age of patients was 13.62 years. Bilateral retinal detachment was present in 12 (10.8%); 51 (46%) patients had some form of bilateral ocular pathology at initial presentation. The two most common aetiologies were non-penetrating trauma (45.04%) and myopia (41.44%). Decreased vision was the most frequent symptom. The mean duration of symptoms was 165.36 days. The commonest retinal break was a retinal hole (34.23%). Late diagnosis was common, evidenced by high frequency of macular detachment (97.29%) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (45.94%) at initial presentation. The most commonly performed primary surgery was scleral buckle (61.26%). The average postoperative follow-up after the first procedure was 10 months (range 8-19 months). Final retinal reattachment was accomplished in 78.37% (87/111) with a mean of 1.29 surgeries per eye. Improvement, no change and decline in vision was seen in 50 (48%), 32 (31%) and 22 (21%) eyes respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-penetrating injury and myopia were the most common cause for RRD in juveniles. Fellow eyes commonly had vision-threatening abnormalities. Final anatomical and visual recovery rates were encouraging despite late initial presentation and high rates of macular detachment, and PVR at initial presentation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Choroidal neovascular membrane associated with choroidal osteoma (CO) treated with trans-pupillary thermo therapy.
S Sharma, N Sribhargava, Mahesh P Shanmugam
October-December 2004, 52(4):329-30
Choroidal neovascular membrane, a known complication of choroidal osteoma causing visual loss when located subfoveally, can be successfully treated with transpupillary thermo therapy.
  5 5,155 1
Intraoperative performance and longterm outcome of phacoemulsification in age-related cataract.
Sheena A Dholakia, Abhay R Vasavada
October-December 2004, 52(4):311-7
PURPOSE: To evaluate intraoperative performance and longterm surgical outcome after phacoemulsification of age-related cataracts. METHODS: Prospective, observational, non-comparative study of 165 consecutive eyes undergoing phacoemulsification with nuclear sclerosis Grade I to III (Scale I to V). Preoperative evaluation included specular microscopy. Phacoemulsification was performed by a single surgeon using a standardised surgical technique under topical anaesthesia. Intraoperatively, effective phaco time (EPT), wound site thermal injury (WSTI), serious complications (eg. vitreous loss, posterior capsule rupture, zonulolysis) and intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque) were evaluated. Postoperatively, posterior capsule opacification (PCO), Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy rate, corneal endothelial count, best corrected visual acuity and cystoid macular oedema were evaluated. Eyes were examined at 6 months and then yearly for 3 years. RESULTS: Mean ages of 78 males and 87 females were 59.12 +/- 8.56 and 58.34 +/- 7.45 years respectively. EPT was 36 +/- 19 seconds and WSTI occurred in 7 eyes (4.7%). No serious intraocular complications occurred. Intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque) was present in 21 eyes (13.93%). Postoperatively, PCO occurred in 8 eyes (4.84%) and Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 3 eyes (1.8%). Endothelial cell loss was 7.1% at 3 years follow-up. At the end of 3 years follow-up, 146 eyes (88.89%) maintained a best corrected visual acuity of > or = 6/12. Cystoid macular oedema did not occur in any eye at 1 and 6 months' follow-up. CONCLUSION: PCO rates and endothelial cell loss were acceptable. Consistent and reproducible outcome can be obtained after phacoemulsification of age related cataracts (grade I to III).
  5 6,745 0
Quality of life after community-based rehabilitation for blind persons in a rural population of South India.
V Vijayakumar, Rajesh K John, D Datta, Ravilla D Thulasiraj, Praveen K Nirmalan
October-December 2004, 52(4):331-5
This study aimed to determine the impact of community-based rehabilitation on the quality of life of blind persons in a rural south Indian population. We performed a population-based survey followed by clinical examinations to identify blind persons in a rural south Indian population. Pre-and-post rehabilitation quality of life of 159 blind persons aged 15 years or above was ascertained through a questionnaire previously validated for use in this population. Post-rehabilitation quality-of-life scales showed some improvement for 151 (95.0%) subjects. The additional benefit from rehabilitation was greatest for the self-care and mobility subscales, ranging from 24.6% to 30.0% for the self care subscale and 37.6% to 44.3% for the mobility subscale with effect sizes of 21.5 and 2.38 respectively. Overall quality of life scores were not significantly different between those who did and did not receive economic rehabilitation (P = 0.1). Blind persons in this rural population benefited considerably from rehabilitation services even if economic rehabilitation is not provided. Initiatives against blindness need to consider rehabilitation of the blind as a priority.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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A simple technique to fixate the bullet pipe and perform bimanual vitreous surgery.
Joerg C Schmidt, Eduardo B Rodrigues, Carsten H Meyer
October-December 2004, 52(4):337-8
  3 3,526 1
Liquid crystal display microperimetry in eyes with reduced visual acuity from macular pathology.
Kakarla V Chalam, Vinay A Shah
October-December 2004, 52(4):293-6
PURPOSE: To correlate fixation stability and retinal sensitivity measured by liquid crystal display (LCD) microperimetry to visual acuity in eyes with macular pathology. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review METHODS: The cohort included 26 eyes of 26 patients, divided into two groups according to visual acuity (Group 1 eyes 6/15 - 6/48, Group 2: < or = 6/60). Macular sensitivity and fixation stability were measured using the LCD microperimeter. Mean retinal sensitivity (at central 12 degrees) and fixation stability (at 2 degrees and 4 degrees) were correlated with best-corrected visual acuity. RESULTS: Mean retinal sensitivity correlated with the visual acuity in both groups [Group 1 eyes: 28 point central 12 degrees (9.0 dB); Group 2: central 12 degrees (4.183 dB)] (P < 0.05). The fixation stability correlated similarly with the visual acuity for the groups [Group 1 eyes: 2 degrees (81.2%) and 4 degrees (94.6%); Group 2 eyes: 2 degrees (44.1%) and 4 degrees (80.7%] (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the present study, the mean retinal sensitivity and fixation stability measured with LCD microperimeter correlated with visual acuity. LCD microperimetry reliably measures fixation stability and retinal sensitivity in eyes with various macular pathologies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Posterior capsular dehiscence following blunt injury causing delayed onset lens particle glaucoma.
Sunil S Jain, P Rao, P Nayak, K Kothari
October-December 2004, 52(4):325-7
A late onset lens-particle glaucoma secondary to trauma is reported. It was treated by cataract extraction and intraocular lens placement.
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Fulminate type of retinopathy of prematurity.
Parag K Shah, V Narendran, VR Saravanan, A Raghuram, A Chattopadhyay, M Kashyap, S Devraj
October-December 2004, 52(4):319-20
Routine ophthalmoscopic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the age of 2 weeks is necessary to detect and treat fulminate ROP.
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Utility of computed chest tomography (CT scan) in recurrent uveitis.
S Mehta
October-December 2004, 52(4):321-2
In recurrent uveitis CT scan could be a superior imaging modality when a primary pulmonary pathology is suspected. Two such cases are illustrated.
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Maxillary zoster with corneal involvement.
S Jain, Mahesh K Rathore
October-December 2004, 52(4):323-4
A case, of maxillary zoster with corneal involvement in a young patient is described. Corneal involvement in maxillary zoster (Medline search) is rare.
  1 4,613 0
Differential staining with indocyanine green and trypan blue dye.
A Kumar, G Prakash
October-December 2004, 52(4):339-339
  1 3,743 0
Massive peripapillary retinal haemorrahge in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
M Varghese, S Singh, Santhan K Gopal
October-December 2004, 52(4):340-1
  1 2,684 0
Penetrating keratoplasty after a total conjunctival flap.
Nikhil S Gokhale
October-December 2004, 52(4):341-2
  1 3,730 0
Laser rangefinder induced retinal injuries.
P Chandra, Raj Vardhan Azad
October-December 2004, 52(4):349-349
  1 2,920 0
Pattern of uveitis in a referral eye clinic in North India.
A Salman, P Parmar
October-December 2004, 52(4):345-6
  1 2,700 0
A letter from Dr. Salil Mehta
S Mehta
October-December 2004, 52(4):346-346
  1 2,934 0
Late recurrent uveitis after phacoemulsification.
Tapan Kumar Samanta
October-December 2004, 52(4):347-347
  - 2,651 3
Trace elements iron, copper and zinc in vitreous of patients with various vitreoretinal diseases.
H Vijaya Pai
October-December 2004, 52(4):348-348
  - 2,302 0
Lattice corneal dystrophy.
Nikhil S Gokhale
October-December 2004, 52(4):348-348
  - 2,588 0
Modified needle drainage. A safe and efficient technique of subretinal fluid drainage in scleral buckling procedure.
Manoj K Agarwal
October-December 2004, 52(4):342-3
  - 2,432 0
Major ocular complications after organ transplantation.
V Vedantham
October-December 2004, 52(4):343-5
  - 2,467 0
Indian ophthalmology : towards becoming a world leader.
Kannan M Narayana, Venkatesh C Prabhakaran
October-December 2004, 52(4):337-337
  - 2,615 0