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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2008| May-June  | Volume 56 | Issue 3  
    Online since April 22, 2008

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Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis
Noopur Gupta, Radhika Tandon
May-June 2008, 56(3):209-213
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40359  PMID:18417821
Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram's stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.
  11 5,831 1,103
Practical approach to medical management of glaucoma
Rajul S Parikh, Shefali R Parikh, Shoba Navin, Ellen Arun, Ravi Thomas
May-June 2008, 56(3):223-230
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40362  PMID:18417824
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is usually a chronic, slowly progressive disease. At present, all resources are directed towards reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only known causal and treatable risk factor for glaucoma, and medical management is frequently the first choice in most cases. With the introduction of innovative tools for early diagnosis and newer medications for treatment, decision-making in diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma has become more complex. The philosophy of glaucoma management is to preserve the visual function and quality of life (QOL) of the individual with minimum effects on QOL in terms of cost, side effects, treatment regime, follow-up schedules as well as socioeconomic burden. Our aim should be not to treat just the IOP, optic disc or visual field, but to treat the patient as a whole so as to provide maximum benefit with minimal side effects. In this article, we describe the scientific approach to medical management, mainly of POAG.
  10 11,238 1,590
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for the treatment of proliferative sickle retinopathy
Saad Shaikh
May-June 2008, 56(3):259-259
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40380  PMID:18417840
  8 2,279 287
Diabetic retinopathy: An update
Ramandeep Singh, Kim Ramasamy, Chandran Abraham, Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta
May-June 2008, 56(3):179-188
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40355  PMID:18417817
Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of avoidable blindness in both the developing and the developed countries. Significant technological advances have taken place to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetic retinopathy. In the last three decades, the treatment strategies have been revised to include, besides laser photocoagulation, early surgical interventions and pharmacotherapies.
  8 15,640 3,116
Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis
Hijab Mehta, Hitendra B Mehta, Prashant Garg, Harish Kodial
May-June 2008, 56(3):243-245
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40369  PMID:18417831
We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy.
  7 6,080 596
An observational study of the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference, 2000 and subsequent publication in indexed journals
Upreet Dhaliwal, Rajeev Kumar
May-June 2008, 56(3):189-195
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40356  PMID:18417818
Aims: To determine the quality of reporting in the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference (AIOC) 2000, subsequent rate of publication in an indexed journal and differences between the proceedings and the journal version of these papers. Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: All papers presented at the AIOC 2000 were retrieved from the proceedings and assessed for completeness of reporting. To determine the subsequent full publication, a Medline search was performed as of January 2007; consistency between the proceedings paper and the final publication was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare publication rates based on geographical location, subspecialty and study design; Student's t -test was used to compare differences based on the number of authors and sample size. Results: Two hundred papers were retrieved; many failed to include study dates, design or statistical methods employed. Thirty-three (16.5%) papers were subsequently published in indexed journals by January 2007. The published version differed from the proceedings paper in 27 (81.8%) instances, mostly relating to changes in author name, number or sequence. Conclusions: The overall quality of reporting of scientific papers in the proceedings of the AIOC 2000 was inadequate and many did not result in publication in an indexed journal. Differences between the published paper in journals and in proceedings were seen in several instances. Ophthalmologists should be cautious about using the information provided in conference proceedings in their ophthalmic practice.
  7 3,320 224
Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin
Radha R Pai, Hema Kini, Sai Giridhar Kamath, Suneet Kumar
May-June 2008, 56(3):239-240
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40367  PMID:18417829
Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.
  5 3,151 222
Periocular necrotizing fasciitis associated with kerato-conjunctivitis and treated with medical management: A case report
Debraj Shome, Vandana Jain, Chaitra Jayadev, Kiran Shah, Sundaram Natarajan
May-June 2008, 56(3):231-232
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40363  PMID:18417825
We report a 25-year-old systemically healthy male who presented with periocular necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in the left eyelid. This was associated with the presence of immunologically mediated marginal kerato-conjunctivitis, in the same eye. This potentially dangerous lid infection and the associated ocular surface infection resolved successfully, with medical management. We report this case to highlight the successful conservative management of periocular NF and the hitherto unreported anterior segment involvement.
  5 2,917 250
Sudoriferous cyst of the orbit of adult origin after trauma
Anjali Mehta, Aparna Rao, Apoorva Khanna
May-June 2008, 56(3):235-237
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40365  PMID:18417827
A rare case of sudoriferous cyst of the orbit occurring in an adult, who had facial trauma, is reported. Several factors suggest its adult onset. The only other case reported in an adult is of presumed childhood origin. Very few congenital cases have been reported. A 65-year-old lady presented with recent onset of left-sided ptosis and a painless mass below the left supraorbital margin. The patient had traumatic ptosis after a road traffic accident 13 years ago. The ptosis was surgically repaired, which resulted in symmetrical palpebral apertures. Computed tomographic scan revealed a well-defined cystic mass in the anterior orbit. The mass was removed in toto by anterior orbitotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a single cyst lined by double-layered cuboidal epithelium in some areas and transitional epithelium at others. A periodic acid Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase-resistant glycocalyx lined the inner epithelium. Apical snouting suggested an apocrine nature. This confirmed a diagnosis of sudoriferous cyst.
  5 3,748 191
Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by compressed air injury: A case report
Sunu Mathew, Usha Vasu, Febson Francis, Colin Nazareth
May-June 2008, 56(3):247-249
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40371  PMID:18417833
Orbital emphysema following conjunctival tear in the absence of orbital wall fracture, caused by air under pressure is rare. Usually orbital emphysema is seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal sinuses or facial bones. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only eight reports of orbital emphysema following use of compressed air during industrial work. The air under pressure is pushed through the subconjunctival space into the subcutaneous and retrobulbar spaces. We present here a rare cause of orbital emphysema in a young man working with compressed air gun. Although the emphysema was severe, there were no orbital bone fracture and the visual recovery of the patient was complete without attendant complications.
  5 3,517 205
Medical management approach to infectious keratitis
Nikhil S Gokhale
May-June 2008, 56(3):215-220
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40360  PMID:18417822
This section provides guidelines on medical therapy of patients with infectious keratitis. In addition to initial empirical therapy, preferred medications, once the organisms responsible are isolated, are discussed. Atypical mycobacterial keratitis following lasik is described. General guidelines for supportive therapy and follow-up, of these patients are presented. Clinical response to treatment and indications for intervention are discussed. Possible causes and approach to cases refractory to medical therapy are discussed.
  5 10,381 1,440
Descemet's membrane detachment caused by inadvertent vancomycin injection
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Jnanankar Medhi, Abu Altaf
May-June 2008, 56(3):241-243
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40368  PMID:18417830
Descemet's membrane detachment is a condition with a wide range of etiologies. The most common cause is a localized detachment occurring after cataract surgery. We report a case of vancomycin injection-induced Descemet's membrane detachment as a complication following a routine cataract surgery and its management.
  4 4,556 248
Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals
K Satyanarayana, Anju Sharma, Purvish Parikh, VK Vijayan, DK Sahu, Barun K Nayak, RK Gulati, Mahendra N Parikh, Prati Pal Singh, SB Bavdekar, U Sreehari, Peush Sahni
May-June 2008, 56(3):177-178
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40354  PMID:18417816
  4 3,826 251
Calculating graft size and position in rotational corneal autografting: A simplified approach
Srinivas K Rao, Dennis SC Lam
May-June 2008, 56(3):233-235
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40364  PMID:18417826
In eyes with eccentric corneal opacities partially involving the pupillary area, using a rotational corneal autograft, can help restore vision without the immunological complications associated with allografts. In this report, we describe a simple intraoperative method for determining trephine size and placement for rotational corneal autografting. This surgical approach helps in the planning and execution of rotational corneal autografting, to obtain good outcomes.
  3 2,759 290
Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C
T Velpandian, Ramanjit Sihota, Ankur Sinha, Viney Gupta
May-June 2008, 56(3):197-201
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40357  PMID:18417819
Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC) to Tenon's tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min) was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon's capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA). In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon's tissue excised was 5.51 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1) and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon's tissue using HPLC was 18.67 32.36 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 10−6 ). In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%), the MMC concentration reached above 2 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.
  3 3,359 406
Distinguishing infective versus noninfective keratitis
M Srinivasan, Jeena Mascarenhas, CN Prashanth
May-June 2008, 56(3):203-207
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40358  PMID:18417820
For the purpose of this symposium, the term "keratitis" implies suppurative nonviral and viral keratitis. Corneal ulcers have been described in ancient literature. But even today, despite the availability of a wide range of newer antimicrobials and new diagnostic techniques, infective keratitis continues to pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This article focuses on the key diagnostic clinical features of the most common organisms causing infective keratitis - bacteria, fungi, viruses, nocardia and acanthamoeba - in India. While the clinical features in some cases are fairly straightforward, most cases challenge the clinician. We describe the salient clinical features which can help arrive at a diagnosis to begin appropriate treatment immediately, prior to the laboratory report.
  3 6,219 1,096
Isolated and silent spinal neurocysticercosis associated with pseudotumor cerebri
Rabindra N Mohapatra, Jaya K Pattanaik, Sanjoya K Satpathy, S Joshi
May-June 2008, 56(3):249-251
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40372  PMID:18417834
Incidence of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) is rare. Isolated spinal NCC is still rarer. We present here a case report where a young lady presented with all the clinical features of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), where medical treatment for PTC failed and the presence of cysticercous in spinal canal was detected only on the operation table, while doing a lumbo-peritoneal shunt (LP shunt) to save her vision. Diagnosis could be confirmed only after the histopathology report was received. She did not have any direct evidence of spinal involvement, thereby eluding correct diagnosis. In English literature, we could not find any report of isolated and silent spinal NCC associated with PTC. In addition, we could not find any report of recovery of cysticercous larva through the Touhey's needle injury, although this was an incidental finding. In endemic areas, isolated spinal NCC should be suspected in patients presenting with PTC.
  2 3,279 221
Sterilization of phacoemulsification handpieces
Ravi Thomas
May-June 2008, 56(3):253-253
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40373  PMID:18417836
  2 2,656 314
Debate on the various anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs
Mohammad Reza Khalili, Hamid Hosseini
May-June 2008, 56(3):255-256
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40375  PMID:18417837
  2 2,325 283
Acute orbital abscess complicating deep posterior subtenon triamcinolone injection
Jaspreet Sukhija, Mangat R Dogra, Jagat Ram, Parul Ichhpujani, Amod Gupta
May-June 2008, 56(3):246-247
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40370  PMID:18417832
A 54-year-old diabetic female presented with orbital abscess and corneal infiltrate 3 days after deep posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide injection in her right eye. This was administered immediately after focal laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. The orbital abscess and corneal infiltrate responded to systemic and topical antibiotics.
  1 2,807 217
Primary 25-guage transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy in pseudophakic retinal detachment
Arvind K Dubey, Benu Dubey
May-June 2008, 56(3):256-257
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40377  PMID:18417838
  1 1,696 176
Intra-cameral injection of Bevacizumab (Avastin) to treat anterior chamber neovascular membrane in a painful blind eye
Manisha Agarwal, Suneeta Dubey
May-June 2008, 56(3):258-259
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40379  PMID:18417839
  1 2,694 286
Recurrent neovascularization of the disc in sympathetic ophthalmia
Raju Sampangi, Pradeep Venkatesh, Subrata Mandal, Sat Paul Garg
May-June 2008, 56(3):237-239
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40366  PMID:18417828
Sympathetic ophthalmia following parsplana vitrectomy is a known complication. We describe here a case of recurrent disc neovascularization in a patient of sympathetic ophthalmia. It promptly responded to steroids initially but later recurred with inflammation.
  - 2,672 229
Marching ahead with clinical trial registration
Barun Kumar Nayak
May-June 2008, 56(3):175-176
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40353  PMID:18417815
  - 2,398 305
Author's reply
Fatih Horozoglu, Ates Yanyali, Erkan Celik, Banu Aytug, Ahmet F Nohutcu
May-June 2008, 56(3):257-258
  - 1,961 134
Author's reply
Manish Nagpal, Kamal Nagpal, PN Nagpal
May-June 2008, 56(3):256-256
  - 1,581 142
Right traumatic carotico-cavernous fistula with bilateral eye signs and post-treatment right pseudo Argyll Robertson pupil
Mary Santhosh, Santhosh Joseph, Priyanka Doctor
May-June 2008, 56(3):253-255
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40374  PMID:18417835
  - 3,139 186
First aid for complications of infectious keratitis
Vinaykumar Agrawal
May-June 2008, 56(3):221-222
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.40361  PMID:18417823
Infectious keratitis is a fairly common entity in India. However while paying attention to the primary entity, the associated events may be overlooked. Enhanced pain usually suggests a worsening of the condition or development of associated problems like secondary glaucoma. However, contrary to logic, a sudden decrease in pain is also liley to suggest a worsening, e.g. perforation of the corneal ulcer. Various such problems with their management are outlined.
  - 2,695 480