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   2008| November-December  | Volume 56 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 14, 2008

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Current status of cataract blindness and Vision 2020: The right to sight initiative in India
GVS Murthy, Sanjeev K Gupta, Neena John, Praveen Vashist
November-December 2008, 56(6):489-494
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.42774  PMID:18974520
Background: India is a signatory to the World Health Organization resolution on Vision 2020: The right to sight. Efforts of all stakeholders have resulted in increased number of cataract surgeries performed in India, but the impact of these efforts on the elimination of avoidable blindness is unknown. Aims: Projection of performance of cataract surgery over the next 15 years to determine whether India is likely to eliminate cataract blindness by 2020. Materials and Methods: Data from three national level blindness surveys in India over three decades, and projected age-specific population till 2020 from US Census Bureau were used to develop a model to predict the magnitude of cataract blindness and impact of Vision 2020: the right to sight initiatives. Results: Using age-specific data for those aged 50+ years it was observed that prevalence of blindness at different age cohorts (above 50 years) reduced over three decades with a peak in 1989. Projections show that among those aged 50+ years, the quantum of cataract surgery would double (3.38 million in 2001 to 7.63 million in 2020) and cataract surgical rate would increase from 24025/million 50+ in 2001 to 27817/million 50+ in 2020. Though the prevalence of cataract blindness would decrease, the absolute number of cataract blind would increase from 7.75 million in 2001 to 8.25 million in 2020 due to a substantial increase in the population above 50 years in India over this period. Conclusions: Considering existing prevalence and projected incidence of cataract blindness over the period 2001-2020, visual outcomes after cataract surgery and sight restoration rate, elimination of cataract blindness may not be achieved by 2020 in India.
  17,046 1,192 20
REVIEW ARTICLE
Sutureless vitrectomy
Sunil K Warrier, Rajeev Jain, Jagjit Singh Gilhotra, Henry S Newland
November-December 2008, 56(6):453-458
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43364  PMID:18974514
Sutureless vitrectomy has rapidly been accepted as an essential part of a vitreoretinal surgical setup. The size and structure of the wound along with near intact conjunctival covering makes the incision self-sealing and safe. This allows the vitrectomy instruments to be used without creating an initial limited peritomy to expose bare sclera, and obviates the need for sutures at the end of the procedure. Wound construction is the essential step in ensuring postoperative wound stability. Both one-step and two-step wound constructions have been described. Key points include an oblique, tunneled approach to ensure a valve-like effect as well as misalignment of conjunctival and scleral wounds by displacing conjunctiva during construction. Advantages include decreased operative times in certain cases and decreased postoperative inflammation, early postoperative rehabilitation, improved patient comfort, and minimal conjunctival damage. Complications are based around wound competence, hypotony, and its relationship to endophthalmitis rates. Early reports highlighted an increase in endophthalmitis though further studies are required to accurately assess the incidence. Endophthalmitis has not been reported in cases that underwent fluid/air exchange. This review focuses on techniques, benefits, complications, personal experiences, and the safety profiles of sutureless vitrectomy systems. A literature review was undertaken using 'Medline' and 'Pubmed'. Search terms included sutureless vitrectomy, 20 gauge, 23 gauge, 25 gauge, and transconjunctival and small gauge vitrectomy.
  8,036 920 20
COMMUNITY EYE CARE
Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Kalyan Das, Rishi Raj Borah, Kamalesh Guha, Parikshit Gogate, S Purukayastha, Clare Gilbert
November-December 2008, 56(6):495-499
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43368  PMID:18974521
Background: The northeastern region (NER) of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity <20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years) underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization's reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos) 93 (36.1%); corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency) 94 (36.7%); cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%), retinal disorders 15 (5.8%) and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%). Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%). Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.
  5,749 629 11
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Status of pediatric eye care in India
GVS Murthy, N John, SK Gupta, P Vashist, GV Rao
November-December 2008, 56(6):481-488
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.42642  PMID:18974519
Purpose: To document the status of pediatric eye care in India. Materials and Methods: A list of institutions providing eye care was compiled from various sources, including government officials, professional bodies of ophthalmologists, and national and international non-governmental organizations (NGO) working in the field of eye care in India. A questionnaire on eye care services was sent to all known eye care institutions in the country. Workshops and regional meetings were organized to maximize response. Validity of data was ensured by observational visits to 10% of the institutions who responded. Results: Out of 1204 institutions contacted, 668 (55.5%) responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 192 (28.7%) reported that they provided pediatric eye care services. A higher proportion (48.3%) of NGO hospitals reported separate pediatric ophthalmology units compared to other providers (P< 0.001). Eighty per cent of advanced care eye hospitals had dedicated outpatient, and 40% had dedicated inpatient facilities for children (P< 0.001). The advanced eye care hospitals attended to a larger number of pediatric clients (P < 0.001), and performed more pediatric eye surgeries compared to secondary and tertiary care hospitals (P < 0.001). Eighty-three per cent of advanced care centers and 72.4% of NGO hospitals had an anesthesiologist for pediatric eye service. Refractive error was the commonest reason for seeking service. The commonest surgical procedure was pediatric cataract surgery followed by squint surgery. Conclusion: Pediatric eye care services are not adequate in India.
  5,413 480 6
Prevalence of depression and its effect on disability in patients with age-related macular degeneration
Anindya Banerjee, Suresh Kumar, Parmanand Kulhara, Amod Gupta
November-December 2008, 56(6):469-474
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.42643  PMID:18974517
Aims: To estimate depression in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and study the relationships among depression, visual acuity, and disability. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling (n = 53) of patients with AMD aged 50 years and above attending the retina clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Depression, general disability and vision-specific disability were assessed in subjects meeting selection criteria. Assessments were done using the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM- IV) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis -I Disorders, Clinical Version (SCID-CV), World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II (WHODAS-II) and Daily Living Tasks dependent on Vision scale (DLTV). Non-parametric correlation analyses and regression analyses were performed. Results: Out of 53 participants, 26.4% (n = 14) met DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of depressive disorder. Depressed patients had significantly greater levels of general and vision-specific disability than non-depressed patients. General disability was predicted better by depression and vision-specific disability than by visual acuity. Conclusion: Depression is a major concern in patients with AMD and contributes more to disability than visual impairment.
  4,877 424 4
Part-time occlusion therapy for amblyopia in older children
Inderpreet Singh, Nishant Sachdev, Gagandeep S Brar, Sushmita Kaushik
November-December 2008, 56(6):459-463
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43365  PMID:18974515
Aim: To compare the efficacy of part-time versus full-time occlusion for treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7-12 years. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case series. One hundred children between 7-12 years of age with anisometropic (57), strabismic (25) and mixed (18) unilateral amblyopia were randomized (simple randomization) into four groups (25 each) to receive two hours, four hours, six hours or full-time occlusion therapy. Children were regularly followed up at six-weekly intervals for a minimum of three visits. Statistical Analysis: Intragroup visual improvement was analyzed using paired t-test while intergroup comparisons were done using ANOVA and unpaired t-test. Results: All four groups showed significant visual improvement after 18 weeks of occlusion therapy ( P <0.001). Seventy-three (73%) of the total 100 eyes responded to amblyopia therapy with 11 eyes (44%), 17 eyes (68%), 22 eyes (88%) and 23 eyes (92%) being amblyopia responders in the four groups respectively, with the least number of responders in the two hours group. In mild to moderate amblyopia (vision 20/30 to 20/80), there was no significant difference in visual outcome among the four groups ( P =0.083). However, in severe amblyopia (vision 20/100 or worse), six hours ( P =0.048) and full-time occlusion ( P =0.027) treatment were significantly more effective than two hours occlusion. Conclusion: All grades of part-time occlusion are comparable to full-time occlusion in effectiveness of treatment for mild to moderate amblyopia in children between 7-12 years of age unlike in severe amblyopia, where six hours and full-time occlusion were more effective than two hours occlusion therapy.
  4,457 763 3
Indirect optic nerve injury in two-wheeler riders in northeast India
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Lokesh Jain, Gitumoni Sarma, Angshuman Sen Sarma, Jnanankar Medhi, Dipankar Das, Sanjoy Kr Buragohain
November-December 2008, 56(6):475-480
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43367  PMID:18974518
Purpose: To investigate the association of posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and superior temporal orbital rim injury in two-wheeler riders and documentation of the clinical profile of such cases. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients reporting with cranio-orbital injury and vision loss following road traffic accidents between October 1994 and April 2006 were reviewed and from them cases with vision loss solely from indirect optic nerve injury were taken up for study. The prognostic significance of different presenting features, role of intravenous methyl prednisolone (IVMP) and relative risk of superior orbital rim injury to posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (at 95% confidence interval) was calculated. Results: Out of 129 consecutive cases of cranio-orbital injury, 35 had posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy with minor ipsilateral superior temporal orbital rim trauma and none used any protective headwear. Presenting clinical features like relative afferent pupillary defect ( P = 0.365), optic disc status ( P = 0.518) and visual evoked potential (VEP) ( P = 0.366) were disproportionate to visual loss. Only VEP had prognostic significance. The IVMP did not provide any added therapeutic benefit. The remaining 94 cases sustained direct blinding ocular trauma and 28 of them had associated intracranial pathology. The relative risk of superior temporal orbital rim injury to posterior indirect optic nerve trauma was 2.25. Conclusion: Superior temporal orbital rim injury, even when minor, carries a potential risk for development of blindness from indirect posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy in two-wheeler drivers. Presenting signs do not correlate with visual status. Only VEP has prognostic significance and the condition is untreatable.
  3,640 345 3
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Optical coherence tomography in a patient with chloroquine-induced maculopathy
Sanita Korah, Thomas Kuriakose
November-December 2008, 56(6):511-513
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43379  PMID:18974527
We herein report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in a case of chloroquine-induced macular toxicity, which to our knowledge, has so far not been reported. A 53-year-old lady on chloroquine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis developed decrease in vision 36 months after initiation of the treatment. Clinical examination revealed evidence of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) disturbances. Humphrey field analyzer (HFA), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and OCT for retinal thickness and volume measurements at the parafoveal region were done. The HFA revealed bilateral superior paracentral scotomas, FFA demonstrated RPE loss and OCT revealed anatomical evidence of loss of ganglion cell layers, causing marked thinning of the macula and parafoveal region. Parafoveal retinal thickness and volume measurements may be early evidence of chloroquine toxicity, and OCT measurements as a part of chloroquine toxicity screening may be useful in early detection of chloroquine maculopathy.
  3,073 415 5
Ocular parasitosis: A rare cause of hypertensive uveitis
Anita Paul, Ashwin T Pammal
November-December 2008, 56(6):501-502
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43369  PMID:18974522
A middle-aged Asian gentleman presented with four weeks' history of recurrent redness, pain and deterioration of vision in his right eye. He was diagnosed with chronic, unilateral, granulomatous hypertensive uveitis. During one of the serial examinations a single, off-white, extremely motile, thread-like worm about 15 mm long was noted in the anterior chamber. Surgical retrieval of the worm was unsuccessful. The worm disappeared in the eye and was never seen again. Patient suffered from chronic waxing and waning granulomatous inflammation with uncontrolled high intraocular pressure despite treatment. The vision dropped down to no perception of light. Therapeutic success in such patients depends upon early and complete surgical removal of the worm, which could be a real challenge as worms are highly motile and only visible sporadically, as in this case. Ocular parasitosis should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in treating non-responsive chronic hypertensive granulomatous inflammation, especially if the patient is of Southeast Asian origin or has recently visited the region.
  2,806 247 3
EDITORIAL
Why should you publish in the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology?
Barun Kumar Nayak
November-December 2008, 56(6):451-452
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43363  PMID:18974513
  2,519 354 4
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
A giant upper eyelid ossifying pilomatrixoma
Syed AR Rizvi, Mohammad Naim, Mohammad S Alam
November-December 2008, 56(6):509-511
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43377  PMID:18974526
Pilomatrixoma of the eyelid is extremely rare in middle age and rarely develops into a large tumor. A 45-year-old female developed a painless, progressive swelling (3.0 cm x 2.0 cm) of the left upper eyelid over a period of two years. Overlying skin was normal in color and texture. A differential diagnosis of dermoid, epidermoid cyst, chalazion and basal cell carcinoma was made. An excisional biopsy was performed. A diagnosis of pilomatrixoma was made on histopathological features (dystrophic calcification of matrix with keratin and foreign body granulomatous reaction, basaloid cells and shadow cells/ghost cells). It also comprises ossification apart from the usual calcification. This is a report of an unusually large ossifying pilomatrixoma in left upper eyelid of a middle-aged woman. The patient should be followed up at regular intervals to rule out any recurrence or malignant transformation.
  2,362 224 1
A case of A-pattern esotropia with dissociated vertical deviation with bilateral congenital ptosis
Archana Gupta, Suma Ganesh, Saman Adil
November-December 2008, 56(6):521-523
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43384  PMID:18974531
Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is an enigmatic strabismus entity for which various theories of causation have been proposed. Commonly seen in association with infantile esotropia, it responds unpredictably to surgical intervention hence fuelling theories for a supranuclear center defect albeit at the midbrain level. Cases of DVD associated with A- pattern eso or exotropia and superior oblique overaction have been reported, although rarely. We report a case of bilateral congenital ptosis associated with this complex. Not reported earlier, we hope this case may help in better understanding of the obscure etiology of this symptom complex.
  2,285 297 -
A rare case of benign isolated schwannoma in the inferior orbit
Rajiv Garg, Anuradha Dhawan, Noopur Gupta, P D'souza
November-December 2008, 56(6):514-515
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43380  PMID:18974528
A rare case of unilateral orbital schwannoma arising from the infraorbital nerve is presented. An excision biopsy with complete removal of the mass in the inferior orbit was performed. A definitive diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. The clinical and histological features of schwannoma are discussed. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications.
  2,315 238 6
Clinical and histopathological features of posttraumatic iris cyst
Pukhraj Rishi, Ekta Rishi, Jyotirmay Biswas, Krishnendu Nandi
November-December 2008, 56(6):518-521
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43383  PMID:18974530
Iris cyst excision involves complex surgical maneuvers and may have a variable visual outcome depending upon preexisting and postoperative complications. Hereby, we report a case series of 10 eyes from which posttraumatic iris cysts were excised and proven histopathologically. Histopathology records were reviewed. Data regarding patient profile, clinical profile, surgical details, treatment outcomes and follow-up were reviewed. Outcome measures were defined as recurrences, visual acuity and number of other surgeries required. Non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare changes in the visual acuity and Fisher test was used to find out the significance of several risk factors. Mean age was 24.7 years (3-58 years). Mean follow-up was 2.36 years. Mean preoperative logMAR visual acuity was 0.56 in comparison to final logMAR visual acuity of 1.62. Factors related to adverse functional outcome were related to post-surgical complications.
  2,231 281 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Two years follow-up outcome of verteporfin therapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia in Indian eyes
Nazimul Hussain, Rohit Khanna, Taraprasad Das, Raja Narayanan, Oluleye Tunji Sunday, Azad Gaurav Bansal, Rajeev Reddy
November-December 2008, 56(6):465-468
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43366  PMID:18974516
Context: In India, refractive errors are a major cause of treatable blindness. Population surveys in southern India have shown prevalence of high myopia to be 4.32-4.54%. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) caused by pathologic myopia is beneficial. Aims: To report the 24 months outcome of PDT with verteporfin for subfoveal CNV caused by pathologic myopia in Indian eyes Settings and Design: Prospective case series Materials and Methods: Review of prospectively collected data of Indian patients with pathologic myopia and subfoveal CNV treated with verteporfin therapy between 2001 and 2005 using standard regimen for PDT. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to see the difference in the mean letter acuity at intervals compared to baseline. Kaplan Meier Survival analysis was done to estimate the success rate of verteporfin therapy for CNV caused by pathologic myopia. Results: Fifteen patients (15 eyes) treated with standard fluence PDT and who had completed 24 months follow-up were analyzed. The mean spherical equivalent was -13.36 5.88 diopter. Five out of 15 eyes in six months, three out of 15 eyes at 12 months and four eyes out of 15 at 24 months had improved vision by > 10 letters. The mean number of treatment session was 2.2 in two years. Conclusions: PDT with verteporfin for subfoveal CNV caused by pathologic myopia in Indian eyes is effective.
  2,187 277 5
JOURNAL ABSTRACTS
Sutureless vitrectomy: Review of journal abstracts
Rajesh Sinha, Subrato Mandal, Sat Pal Garg
November-December 2008, 56(6):529-532
PMID:18974535
  2,189 250 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Anterior plagiocephaly with contralateral superior oblique overaction
Jitendra Jethani, Abhishek Dagar, P Vijayalakshmi, K Sundaresh
November-December 2008, 56(6):504-507
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43374  PMID:18974524
Anterior plagiocephaly is a craniofacial anomaly related to premature unilateral synostosis. We present three cases of anterior plagiocephaly with contralateral superior oblique dysfunction. A detailed ophthalmic examination, including orthoptic assessment for the extraocular muscle misalignment, with appropriate radio-imaging was done in all the three cases. All of them showed a right-sided plagiocephaly, with overaction of the left superior oblique muscle, alternating exotropia and a dissociated vertical deviation. Two underwent surgical correction of squint. Both were well aligned after squint surgery. Plagiocephaly has been reported to simulate superior oblique muscle paresis. We report a rare occurrence of contralateral superior oblique muscle overaction in three children with anterior plagiocephaly.
  2,199 206 1
Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease presenting as an isolated epibulbar mass
Rajat Maheshwari, Satish Shekde
November-December 2008, 56(6):502-504
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43372  PMID:18974523
Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare idiopathic disorder characterized by painless lymphadenopathy with cervical involvement in more than 80% cases. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as an isolated epibulbar mass in a healthy young adult male. Epibulbar involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare presentation as can be seen from a review of all literature. The presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  1,996 229 2
Agreement between two Goldmann type applanation tonometers
Ronnie George, Hemamalini Arvind, M Baskaran, S Ve Ramesh, Prema Raju, Lingam Vijaya
November-December 2008, 56(6):516-517
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43381  PMID:18974529
The aim of the study was to assess agreement between two commercially available applanation tonometers for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). Forty subjects underwent IOP measurement on two accurately calibrated Goldmann type applanation tonometers (Zeiss AT 030 (GATZ) and Inami L-5110(GATI)). The order of examination was randomized and observers were masked to the IOP recorded. The mean of two consecutive readings, from a randomly selected eye for each subject, was used for analysis. Agreement was assessed using the Altman and Bland plot. The mean (SD) IOP readings on GATZ was 15.32 (6.80) mm Hg and on GATI was 13.52 (5.65) mm Hg (p<0.001, 95% CI of the difference: -2.48 to -1.11). The 95% limits of agreement on the Altman and Bland plot were:-2.47 to 6.16 mm Hg). There was significant inter-instrument variability between the two accurately calibrated Goldmann type applanation tonometers studied.
  1,949 226 2
Isolated lacrimal gland involvement in Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease
Hanni Gulwani, Sunita Bhalla, Amit Srivastava
November-December 2008, 56(6):507-509
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43375  PMID:18974525
Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) disease is an uncommon disease characterized by benign proliferation of histiocytes, with painless lymph node enlargement and frequent extranodal disease. Orbital involvement occurs in 9-11% of cases. However, isolated Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease of the lacrimal gland without any systemic involvement is very rare with only three case reports. We describe here one such young male patient with unilateral lacrimal gland swelling. Excision biopsy revealed almost complete replacement of the lacrimal gland by lymphocytes, plasma cells and large pale histiocytes. The latter exhibited emperipolesis and stained positive for S-100 and CD68 on immunohistochemistry. Patient is well and has no other manifestation or recurrence of the disease during a follow-up of 24 months.
  1,789 186 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Residency training programs in India
Ravi Thomas
November-December 2008, 56(6):525-525
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43386  PMID:18974532
  1,562 262 3
Sustained closure of surgically repaired macular hole after proliferative vitreoretinopathy
Yoshinori Mitamura, Shuichi Yamamoto
November-December 2008, 56(6):526-527
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43391  PMID:18974533
  1,486 151 -
Residency training in India
Ronnie George
November-December 2008, 56(6):526-526
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43389  PMID:18974534
  1,252 155 1
Authors' reply
AK Grover
November-December 2008, 56(6):525-525
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.43387  
  936 114 -