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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| November-December  | Volume 57 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 21, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Are current guidelines for categorization of visual impairment in India appropriate?
Parveen K Monga, Binay P Parwal, Jolly Rohatgi, Upreet Dhaliwal
November-December 2009, 57(6):423-426
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57144  PMID:19861742
Context : Visual disability in India is categorized based on severity. Sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories. Aims : To identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. Settings and Design : Retrospective chart review of visual disability awarded in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : The last hundred records of patients who had been classified as visually disabled were screened for vision in both eyes and percentage disability awarded. Data were handled in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. Results : Twenty-one patients had been classified as having 30% disability, seven each had 40% and 75%, and 65 had 100% disability. Eleven of them did not fall into any of the current categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgment. There was a tendency to over-grade the disability (seven of 11; 63.6%). The classification proposed by us is based on the national program for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision (<20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness (<20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness (<20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes). Conclusions : The current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorized. The classification proposed by us is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national program.
  12,042 1,196 -
Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy
Shaik M Zakir, M Shukla, Zaka-ur-rab Simi, J Ahmad, Mahmood Sajid
November-December 2009, 57(6):419-422
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57143  PMID:19861741
Context : The preferential occurrence of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) in males with a typical Type A personality and behavior and a relative absence in females is a possible indicator towards the role of serum cortisol and /or the male sex hormone testosterone. Aims : To study levels of cortisol and testosterone in ICSC. Settings and Design : Case-control study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : The study was conducted on 23 cases of ICSC. Twelve patients with unilateral sudden painless loss of vision of less than one month duration served as controls. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels at 8.00 a.m. were estimated by radioimmunoassay in both groups. Statistical analysis used : Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0 software. Independent Sample t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the two groups. Results : Mean age of patients with ICSC was 37.1 ± 9.7 years and 96% of the patients were males. Mean serum cortisol levels were significantly higher (P=0.002) in patients with ICSC i.e., 495.02 ± 169.47 nano moles/liter (nmol/L) as compared to controls i.e., 362.25 ± 51.54 nmol/L. Mean serum testosterone levels were 3.85 ± 1.81 nano grams/ml (ngm/ml) and 4.23 ± 1.89 ngm/ml in cases and controls respectively and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.58). Conclusions : ICSC is associated with elevated 8.00 a.m. serum cortisol levels. However, mean serum testosterone levels in both patients of ICSC and controls were within normal range.
  3,982 1,067 6
Utility of QuantiFERON TB gold test in a south Indian patient population of ocular inflammation
Kalpana Babu, Vidya Satish, S Satish, DK SubbaKrishna, Mariamma Philips Abraham, Krishna R Murthy
November-December 2009, 57(6):427-430
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57147  PMID:19861743
Aim : To study the utility of interferon-g release assays (QuantiFERON TB gold test) in a south Indian patient population of intraocular inflammation. Design : Evaluation of a diagnostic test- a pilot study from January 2007 to October 2008. Materials and Methods : QuantiFERON TB gold test was performed on the following groups of patients following an informed consent. Group A included healthy volunteers without any exposure to tuberculosis (TB) or past history of TB (n=22). Group B included patients with active systemic TB diagnosed by the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli or by the histopathology finding of caseation with granuloma formation from the sputum, lymph node, skin or intestinal biopsies (n=26). Group C included patients with uveitis of known etiologies other than intraocular TB without any history of exposure to active TB (n=21). Group D included patients with a diagnosis of presumed intraocular TB, who responded to antitubercular therapy by decreased or no recurrences following treatment and with a minimum of nine months follow-up following initiation of antitubercular therapy (n=39). Results : The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pick up active systemic TB was 58% and 77% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pickup intraocular TB was 82% and 76% respectively. Conclusions : QuantiFERON TB gold test alone may not be specific for intraocular TB. The significance of this test in a case scenario needs to be interpreted with clinical presentation and other evidences for intraocular TB.
  4,443 551 15
Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children
Pranab Das, Jagat Ram, Gagandeep Singh Brar, Mangat R Dogra
November-December 2009, 57(6):431-436
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57149  PMID:19861744
Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR) in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting : Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods : We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90 0 up to 210 0 after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Results : Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Conclusions : Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation
  3,734 574 6
Evaluation of 'vision screening' program for three to six-year-old children in the Republic of Iran
Rajiv Khandekar, Noa Parast, Ashraf Arabi
November-December 2009, 57(6):437-442
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57151  PMID:19861745
Background : Since 1996, vision screening of three to six-year-old children is conducted every year in Iran. We present outcomes of project review held in August 2006. Materials and Methods : Kindergarten teachers examined vision by using Snellen's illiterate 'E' chart. They used torchlight to detect strabismus. On a repeat test, if either eye had vision <20/30, the child was referred to the optometrist. A pediatric ophthalmologist examined and managed children with strabismus or amblyopia. Provincial managers supervised the screening program. The evaluator team assessed the coverage, yield, quality and feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of vision screening, as well as magnitude of amblyopia, and its risk factors. Result : In 2005, 1.4 million (67%) children were examined in all provinces of Iran. Opticians examined 90,319 (61%) children with defective vision that were referred to them. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia was 3.82% (95% CI 3.79 - 3.85), 0.39% (95% CI 0.38 - 0.40) and 1.25% (95% CI 1.24 - 1.26) respectively. Validity test of 7,768 children had a sensitivity of 74.5% (95% CI 72.7 - 76.3) and specificity of 97.2% (95% CI 96.7 - 97.7). The cost of amblyopia screening was US $ 1.5 per child. While the cost of screening and treating one child with amblyopia was US $ 245. Conclusion : A review of the vision screening of children in Iran showed it with screening and useful exercise and had a yield of 1:21. The coverage of vision screening was low and the management of children with amblyopia, low vision and refractive error needed strengthening.
  3,461 470 6
Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students
Parikshit Gogate, Nikhil Rishikeshi, Reshma Mehata, Satish Ranade, Jitesh Kharat, Madan Deshpande
November-December 2009, 57(6):451-453
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57155  PMID:19861747
Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
  3,432 425 4
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
A rare cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction: Dentigerous cyst in the maxillary sinus
Biswarup Ray, Saumendra Nath Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata Das, Bivas Adhikary
November-December 2009, 57(6):465-467
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57161  PMID:19861752
The most common abnormality of the lacrimal drainage system is congenital or acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The causes of acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction may be primary or secondary. The secondary acquired obstructions may result from infection, inflammation, neoplasm, trauma or mechanical causes. The maxillary sinus cysts usually obstruct the nasolacrimal duct mechanically. Dentigerous cysts are one of the main types of maxillary cysts. These cysts are benign odontogenic cysts which are associated with the crowns of unerupted teeth. The clinical documentations of mechanical nasolacrimal duct obstructions due to a dentigerous cyst in the maxillary sinus are very rare in literature. In this case report, we describe a dentigerous cyst with a supernumerary tooth in the maxillary sinus in an 11-year-old male child causing an obstruction to the nasolacrimal duct. The case was successfully managed surgically by Caldwell Luc approach.
  3,425 333 3
COMMUNITY EYE CARE
Effectiveness of using teachers to screen eyes of school-going children in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India
Anand Sudhan, Arun Pandey, Suresh Pandey, Praveen Srivastava, Kamta Prasad Pandey, Bhudhendra Kumar Jain
November-December 2009, 57(6):455-458
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57157  PMID:19861748
Aim : To assess the effectiveness of teachers in a vision screening program for children in classes 5th to 12th attending school in two blocks of a district of north central India. Materials and Methods : Ophthalmic assistants trained school teachers to measure visual acuity and to identify obvious ocular abnormalities in children. Children with visual acuity worse than 20/30 in any eye and/or any obvious ocular abnormality were referred to an ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants also repeated eye examinations on a random sample of children identified as normal (approximately 1%, n=543) by the teachers. Ophthalmic assistants prescribed spectacles to children needing refractive correction and referred children needing further examination to a pediatric ophthalmologist at the base hospital. Results : Five hundred and thirty teachers from 530 schools enrolled 77,778 children in the project and screened 68,833 (88.50%) of enrolled children. Teachers referred 3,822 children (4.91%) with eye defects for further examination by the ophthalmic assistant who confirmed eye defects in 1242 children (1.80% of all screened children). Myopia (n=410, 33.01%), Vitamin A deficiency (n=143, 11.51%) and strabismus (n=134, 10.79%) were the most common eye problems identified by the ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants identified 57.97% referrals as false positives and 6.08% children as false negatives from the random sample of normal children. Spectacles were prescribed to 39.47% of children confirmed with eye defects. Conclusions : Primary vision screening by teachers has effectively reduced the workload of ophthalmic assistants. High false positive and false negative rates need to be studied further.
  3,261 454 5
JOURNAL ABSTRACTS
Plagiarism and unethical practices in literature
Rajesh Sinha, Gurnarinder Singh, Chandrashekhar Kumar
November-December 2009, 57(6):481-485
  3,084 304 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Gender inequality in vision loss and eye diseases: Evidence from the Sultanate of Oman
Rajiv Khandekar, AJ Mohammed
November-December 2009, 57(6):443-449
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57153  PMID:19861746
Purpose : The data from surveys of vision loss and monitoring of services were used to assess changes in gender inequality in Oman. Study Design : Retrospective review of data collection instruments. Materials and Method : The data sets of 12 years between 1996 and 2007 were abstracted to assess the gender equality for vision loss, eye disease prevalence, and service use. They included two surveys (1996 and 2005), Health Information from eye units (1998 and 2007), and eye screening in schools. Results : In 1996, the prevalence of bilateral blindness in ≥ 40 years of age was higher in females [Odd's Ratio (OR) = 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.24 - 0.53)]. Gender differences in the prevalence of cataract [OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.63 - 1.03)] were not significant while trachomatous trichaisis (TT) was less in males [OR = 0.33 (95% CI 0.22-0.48)]. In 2005, gender differences in the prevalence of bilateral blindness [OR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.71 - 1.34)] and TT [OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.42- 1.04)] were not statistically significant.But males were associated with higher prevalence of cataract [OR = 1.26 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.59)]. Surgery rates for cataract, glaucoma and TT were not different by gender. More male compared to female patients with diabetic retinopathy were treated. Myopia was significantly higher in girls. Compliance of spectacle wear was higher in girls. Conclusions : Gender inequality for eye care seems to have reduced in the last 10 years in Oman. However, apart from TT and glaucoma patients the difference in service utilization by gender was not statistically significant.
  3,062 325 8
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Pattern of use of contact lens among college students: A cross-sectional study in coastal Karnataka
B Unnikrishnan, Shakir Hussain
November-December 2009, 57(6):467-469
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57159  PMID:19861753
The use of contact lens (CL) for the correction of refractive errors, cosmetic use and their usage as a therapeutic modality for corneal pathologies has increased tremendously over the years. The present study was conducted with the aim to find a pattern of CL use amongst college students with a focus on the rationale for CL use and problems related to their use. This study includes 371 college students who were current users of CL at the time of the study. Results showed that 96.8% of the CL users use the 'daily wear type' of CL. Most quoted reasons of usage were comfort and convenience (61.2%) with cosmetic benefit (42.9%) as the next most common reply. Common complaints were that of general discomfort (foreign body sensation), dry eyes and watering eyes. Educated use of CLs amongst its users is advised in view of the symptoms and associated complications that may occur.
  2,905 410 4
Combination 20 and 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy: A new approach
Atul Kumar, Aashish Kakkar, Shveta Jindal, R Rajesh
November-December 2009, 57(6):459-461
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57158  PMID:19861749
The advent of smaller gauge instrumentation allows for minimally invasive vitreoretinal surgery (MIVS) as compared to conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sutureless posterior segment surgery has the advantages of faster wound healing, minimal surgical trauma, decreased convalescence period besides reduced postoperative astigmatism; however, slower gel removal and limited peripheral vitreous dissection are disadvantages with smaller gauge systems. We herein describe a new technique combining 23-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy to improve the effectiveness and outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery.
  2,915 361 5
EDITORIAL
Author's misconduct inviting risk: Duplicate publication
BK Nayak
November-December 2009, 57(6):417-418
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57142  PMID:19861740
  2,082 941 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Bilateral macular hole secondary to remote lightning strike
Krishna A Rao, Lavanya G Rao, Ajay N Kamath, Vikram Jain
November-December 2009, 57(6):470-472
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57156  PMID:19861754
We report a case of a 16-year-old girl, who was struck by lightning, and experienced blurred vision in the right eye (RE) immediately following the episode. She reported for ophthalmic evaluation two months later. Examination revealed relative afferent pupillary defect in the RE. Posterior subcapsular cataract was noted in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed macular holes and multiple areas of RPE hyperpigmentation in the periphery in both eyes. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed increased choroidal transmission with early fluorescence and late fading in the foveal region and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) stippling in the periphery in both eyes. This is the first case report of such nature in India to the best of our knowledge.
  2,346 318 3
Amyloidosis of lacrimal gland
Venkatesh C Prabhakaran, Kalpana Babu, Anitha Mahadevan, Sowmya Raveendra Murthy
November-December 2009, 57(6):461-463
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57160  PMID:19861750
Primary localized amyloidosis of lacrimal gland is a rare occurrence. This report describes a female patient with isolated amyloidosis of the lacrimal gland. A 45-year-old Indian woman presented with a swelling over the left lacrimal gland region. Computed tomography showed uniform enlargement of the lacrimal gland. A lacrimal gland biopsy revealed amyloidosis. No systemic involvement was detected on further investigation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lacrimal gland amyloidosis from India and our report also highlights the importance of lacrimal gland biopsy in diagnosing lacrimal gland masses.
  2,076 278 3
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Minimally invasive Knapp's procedure: Modified fornix incision approach
Jitendra Jethani
November-December 2009, 57(6):477-478
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57148  PMID:19861758
  1,980 285 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Botulinum toxin in the management of acquired motor fusion deficiency
Ramesh Murthy, Siddharth Kesarwani
November-December 2009, 57(6):463-464
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57162  PMID:19861751
Acquired disruption of motor fusion is a rare condition characterized by intractable diplopia. Management of these patients is extremely difficult. Prisms in any combination or even surgery may not help relieve their symptoms. We describe a longstanding case of acquired motor fusion disruption which was managed successfully with botulinum toxin injection.
  1,844 283 2
Insect wing tarsal foreign body causing conjunctival granuloma and marginal keratitis
Kalpana Babu, Rashmi EY Maralihalli
November-December 2009, 57(6):473-474
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57154  PMID:19861755
A 37 year old male was referred to our centre for management of episcleritis with peripheral keratitis in the right eye. He had a history of ocular discomfort in the right eye of 1 week duration. Slitlamp examination revealed marginal keratitis between 12'o clock to 2'o clock positions in the right eye. Lid eversion revealed an insect wing on the tarsal conjunctiva along with an adjacent conjunctival granuloma. The area of the marginal keratitis corresponded to the area of the foreign body and the conjunctival granuloma. The probable mechanism of the development of marginal keratitis and the conjunctiva granuloma is speculated in this case report.
  1,803 236 -
Congenital orbital teratoma presenting as microphthalmos with cyst
Usha Singh, Aparna Subramanian, Amanjeet Bal
November-December 2009, 57(6):474-475
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57152  PMID:19861756
We report a rare case of non-communicating large orbital cyst with microphthalmos which was surgically separated from the globe and excised. Histopathology reported it to be a teratoma. Congenital cystic teratoma should be a part of the differential diagnosis in an infant presenting with a clinical picture of microphthalmos with orbital cyst, in view of the different management required.
  1,749 238 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Misinnervation in third nerve palsy: Vertical synergistic divergence
Jitendra Jethani
November-December 2009, 57(6):476-477
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.57150  PMID:19861757
  1,606 247 2
BOOK REVIEW
Clinical Ophthalmology - Contemporary Perspectives
Ashwin Sainani
November-December 2009, 57(6):479-479
  1,264 212 -