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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-February  | Volume 60 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 30, 2011

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Corneal endothelium after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: A four-year comparative study
Anil Kubaloglu, Arif Koytak, Esin Sogutlu Sari, Sibel Akyol, Ekrem Kurnaz, Yusuf Ozerturk
January-February 2012, 60(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90490  PMID:22218243
Purpose: To compare the status of corneal endothelium and central corneal thickness within the first four postoperative years after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine eyes (Group A) which had PK and 44 eyes (Group B) which had DALK for the treatment of keratoconus were included in this retrospective study. The endothelial cell density (ECD), the mean endothelial cell area and the coefficient of variation of cell area were assessed with a non-contact specular microscope, and the central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Results: Mean ECD loss rate at two years was 36.24% in Group A and 18.12% in Group B (P<0.001). Mean ECD loss rate at four years was 47.82% in Group A and 21.62% in Group B (P<0.001). Mean annual ECD loss rate was calculated 14.12% per year in Group A and 5.78% per year in Group B. In the PK group, increase in mean CCT was 15.60% in two years and 15.03% in four years, while in the DALK group, mean CCT increased by 8.05% in two years and 9.31% in four years. Conclusions: As the majority of ectatic disorders such as keratoconus occur in young people, long-term endothelial cell survival following treatment with keratoplasty is essential for the long-term visual ability. Our finding that corneal endothelial cell loss in the DALK group occurs at a slower rate than in the PK group suggests DALK as a safer alternative to PK in these selected patients.
  6 3,410 325
Comparison of different techniques of cataract surgery in bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber in diabetic and non-diabetic population
M Ashok Kumar, Sheen S Kurien, Stephen Selvaraj, Uma Devi, S Selvasundari
January-February 2012, 60(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90486  PMID:22218245
Aim : To compare the bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber (AC) between manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and phacoemulsification (Phaco). To study the conjunctival flora and bacterial contamination of AC between well-controlled diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods : Three hundred and sixty-eight patients were randomized to manual SICS and Phaco. Sixty-eight patients were excluded for not completing follow-up or for intraoperative complications like posterior capsule rupture. One hundred and fifty patients in each group were finally analyzed. Conjunctival swabs were taken on admission, after one day of topical ofloxacin and 15 min after 5% Povidone Iodine (PI) instillation. AC aspirate at the end of the surgery was also cultured. Results : Fifty-six (18.66%) patients had positive conjunctival swab on admission which was reduced to 19 (6.33%) with topical ofloxacin and to five (1.66%) with instillation of 5% PI. AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was 0.66%. The conjunctival flora in diabetics was similar to non-diabetics. None of the diabetics had AC contamination. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-Square test (with Yates' correction). Conclusion : Statistically significant reduction in conjunctival flora was achieved with topical ofloxacin and 5% PI instillation and AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was minimal (0.66%). Well-controlled diabetics who underwent cataract surgery in this study had similar conjunctival flora and AC contamination as non-diabetics.
  5 2,958 489
Assessing Framingham cardiovascular risk scores in subjects with diabetes and their correlation with diabetic retinopathy
Deepali R Damkondwar, Rajiv Raman, G Suganeswari, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, Tarun Sharma
January-February 2012, 60(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91344  PMID:22218246
Aim: To study the Framingham cardiovascular risk assessment scores in subjects with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in subjects with diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this population-based prospective study, subjects with diabetes were recruited (n=1248; age ≥40 years). The Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were calculated for 1248 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The scores were classified as high risk (>10%), and low risk (<10%). Results: Out of the 1248 subjects, 830 (66.5%) patients had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 10 years and 418 (33.5%) had a high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. The risk of developing CVD was more in males than females (56.8% vs. 7%) The prevalence of both diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy was more in the high-risk group (21% and 4.5%, respectively). The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy were similar in both the groups (low vs. high) - duration of diabetes (OR 1.14 vs. 1.08), higher HbA1c (OR 1.24 vs. 1.22), presence of macro- and microalbuminuria (OR 10.17 vs. 6.12 for macro-albuminuria) and use of insulin (OR 2.06 vs. 4.38). The additional risk factors in the high-risk group were presence of anemia (OR 2.65) and higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR 1.05). Conclusion: Framingham risk scoring, a global risk assessment tool to predict the 10-year risk of developing CVD, can also predict the occurrence and type of diabetic retinopathy. Those patients with high CVD scores should be followed up more frequently and treated adequately. This also warrants good interaction between the treating physician/cardiologist and the ophthalmologist.
  5 3,506 416
Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis
Kalpana Babu, Gowri Jaydev Murthy
January-February 2012, 60(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90495  PMID:22218256
  4 3,258 213
Subconjunctival dirofilariasis mimicking scleritis: First report from Western India
Vishram A Sangit, Suhas S Haldipurkar
January-February 2012, 60(1):76-77
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91343  PMID:22218259
  4 4,211 209
Primary 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
Mario R Romano, Ronald Das, Carl Groenwald, Theo Stappler, Joaquin Marticorena, Xavier Valldeperas, David Wong, Heinrich Heimann
January-February 2012, 60(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90487  PMID:22218242
Aims : To report a prospective non-comparative consecutive interventional study on the safety and efficacy of 23-Gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Materials and Methods: Fifty eyes of 50 consecutive patients were recruited between June 2007 and January 2008. All surgeries were performed using the one-step 23-Gauge system with angled incisions. The surgical protocol consisted of a minimum of eight clinical visits: baseline, 1 day, 1 week, 1-, 3- and 6- months after the initial surgery. The endpoints were anatomical, functional results and complications arising from the surgery. Results : Anatomical success was achieved in 82% of cases (41 out of 50) with single surgery and rose to 98% (49 out of 50) with additional surgery. Mean visual acuity improved from logMAR 0.48(SD 0.36) to 0.26(SD 0.31), P < 0.001. Two cases with ocular hypotony, defined as an intraocular pressure ≤ 6mmHg, that were associated with a choroidal detachment were seen. Conclusions : Acceptable anatomical and functional success rates can be achieved with primary 23-Gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for RRD. We found that the approach technique is different from conventional vitrectomy and the complications arising from post surgical hypotony and leakage from sclerotomies are potentially higher compared to 20-Gauge vitrectomy.
  4 2,920 280
Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim in the treatment of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy
Pavel Studeny, Katerina Jirsova, Pavel Kuchynka, Petra Liskova
January-February 2012, 60(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91350  PMID:22218250
A 20-year-old patient, diagnosed with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, developed corneal edema for which he underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim (DMEK-S) in the right eye. No intra- or postoperative complications were noted. At the last follow-up 2 years and 9 months after the procedure, the best corrected visual acuity was 1.0 and endothelial cell density declined from 3533 cells/mm 2 to 1012 cells/mm 2 . Despite the endothelial cell loss, DMEK-S appears to be a good alternative to other surgical techniques for the treatment of corneal endotheliopathies, and it may be of benefit to young patients.
  3 2,646 194
Phototherapeutic keratectomy
Varsha M Rathi, Sharadini P Vyas, Virender S Sangwan
January-February 2012, 60(1):5-14
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91335  PMID:22218239
Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) is done regularly for anterior corneal diseases such as corneal dystrophies, corneal degenerations, scars, and band-shaped keratopathy. The various indications include both therapeutic and visual. The aim of this article is to discuss the therapeutic indications for PTK, the specific technique pertaining to a specific etiology, the various other procedures like amniotic membrane graft combined with PTK or PTK being done for recurrences in the grafts, and PTK done before cataract surgery when the anterior corneal pathology coexists with the cataract. Post PTK management such as healing of an epithelial defect, use of steroids in the post PTK period, recurrences of primary disease pathology, and infections, will be discussed. Methods of literature search: A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language, with the keywords, phototherapeutic keratectomy, band-shaped keratopathy, spheroidal degeneration, scars, bullous keratopathy, and corneal dystrophy. The relevant references are mentioned here.
  3 10,264 951
Management of peripheral polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with intravitreal bevacizumab and indocyanine green angiography-guided laser photocoagulation
Pukhraj Rishi, Atheeswar Das, Pallavi Sarate, Ekta Rishi
January-February 2012, 60(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91351  PMID:22218251
A 69-year-old lady presented with complaints of decreased vision in left eye since one month. Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) was 6/18 in that eye. Fundus examination revealed non-central geographic atrophy and soft drusens at macula in both eyes. Temporal periphery of left eye revealed subretinal exudates with altered sub-RPE hemorrhage mimicking peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR). Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram showed window defects at macula and blocked fluorescence at temporal periphery in left eye. However, Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) revealed active peripheral choroidal polyps. The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and ICGA-guided laser photocoagulation. 27 months after laser treatment, BCVA improved to 6/9. Rationale of consecutive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment followed by more definitive laser photocoagulation is that anti-VEGF aids in resolution of subretinal fluid, thus making the polyp more amenable to focal laser photocoagulation which stabilizes the choroidal vasculature and prevents further leakage.
  2 3,036 254
Microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in a case of traumatic macular hole and associated macular detachment with spontaneous resolution
Lalit Aalok, Rajvardhan Azad, Yog R Sharma, Swati Phuljhele
January-February 2012, 60(1):66-68
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91353  PMID:22218253
The association of macular detachment with posttraumatic macular hole is a known but rare occurrence. Spontaneously occurring resolution of the detachment and closure of the macular hole has been reported only once in the literature. We describe a similar rare event in a young male, the documentation of which was done serially by microperimetry (MP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). A 17-year-old male presented with a decrease in vision following a closed globe injury to the left eye. A coexisting macular hole and macular detachment were detected in the affected eye. Serial follow-up with OCT and MP documented complete resolution of the macular hole and the macular detachment within 1 week of presentation. The case highlights that spontaneous resolution of traumatic macular hole and related macular detachment may occur and a waiting period is advisable before undertaking any corrective surgical procedure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of causation and the resolution of posttraumatic macular hole-related retinal detachment are discussed.
  2 3,315 203
Descemet's membrane detachment managed with perfluro-n-octane liquid
M Ashok Kumar, Vanaja Vaithianathan
January-February 2012, 60(1):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91346  PMID:22218255
We report the case of a 68-year-old male who developed Descemet's membrane detachment after temporal clear corneal phacoemulsification which did not settle with air or viscoelastic injection. The Descemet's membrane was successfully reattached with restoration of 20/50 vision with the help of perfluro-n-octane liquid. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported.
  2 3,163 247
Morphological and functional changes in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in macular microhole variants: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry correlation
Laxmi Gella, Rajiv Raman, Swakshyar Saumya Pal, Muneeswar Gupta Nittala, Tarun Sharma
January-February 2012, 60(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91347  PMID:22218248
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the morphology and retinal function of macular microhole (MMH) variants. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 12 eyes of 11 patients with defects in the IS/OS junction of photoreceptor layer with SD-OCT. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry. Results: The mean logMAR visual acuity in the affected eye was 0.15 ± 0.17 (range 0.00-0.5). Mean horizontal diameter of the MMH was 163 ± 99 μm; the mean retinal sensitivity in the area corresponding to the MMH was 13.79 ± 4.6 dB. Negative correlation was found between the MMH diameter and the retinal sensitivity (r = -0.65, p0 = 0.02). Three morphological patterns of MMH variants were recognized on SD-OCT, which did not differ in retinal sensitivities. Conclusion: We described and classified the MMH variants and made an assessment on the physiological functions using microperimeter.
  2 3,349 248
Outcome of optical penetrating keratoplasties at a tertiary care eye institute in Western India
Shilpa A Joshi, Seema S Jagdale, Pranav D More, Madan Deshpande
January-February 2012, 60(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91337  PMID:22218240
Aim: To study the indications, risk factors, postoperative course, and long-term survival of corneal transplants done for optical purposes. Design: Retrospective case series. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 181 patients operated at our institute (H.V. Desai Eye Hospital) between October 2005 and October 2007 for optical penetrating keratoplasty. Patients with less than one year of follow up, pediatric cases, therapeutic, tectonic, and lamellar keratoplasties were excluded. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used to calculate median survival time of grafts and to see correlation between nine variables viz. age, gender, corneal vascularization, previous failed grafts, previous Herpes Simplex keratitis, post-perforation corneal scars, donor tissue quality, graft size, type of surgery and follow-up. These variables were also used for univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Modeling. Results: Median survival of the cohort was 27 months (95% confidence interval: 20.47-33.52). One- and two-year survival rates were 65% and 52.5%, respectively. Median survival was significantly lower in poor prognosis cases (14 months) than good prognosis cases (27 months, P = 0.0405). Graft survival was lower in vascularized corneas (18.55 months, P = 0.030) and in post-perforation corneal scars (17.96 months, P = 0.09, borderline significance). Multivariate analysis showed that the same factors were predictive of graft failure. Conclusion: Long-term survival of grafts at our center is different from centers in western world. More high-risk cases, paucity of excellent quality donor corneas, and differences in patient profile could be the contributory factors.
  2 4,634 448
Foldable iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens implantation for the correction of myopia: Two years of follow-up
Yusuf Ozertürk, Anil Kubaloglu, Esin Sogutlu Sari, Arif Koytak, Musa Capkin, Levent Akçay, Pinar Sorgun Evcili
January-February 2012, 60(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91340  PMID:22218241
Purpose: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and potential risks of Artiflex foldable iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation for the management of myopia. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight eyes of 40 consecutive patients with a mean spherical refraction of −11.70 ΁ 3.77 diopters (D; range −5.50 to −17.5 D) were included in this prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Main parameters assessed were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), corneal topography (Orbscan II, BauchandLomb, Rochester, NY, USA), manifest and cycloplegic refractive errors, endothelial cell density (ECD) and applanation tonometry. Results: After 2 years, BSCVA was 20/40 or better in 82% of the eyes and UCVA was 20/40 or better in 84% of the eyes. After 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, 51.3% (37 of 72 eyes), 58.9% (46 of 78 eyes) and 76.0% (38 of 50 eyes) of eyes gained 1 line or more of BSCVA, respectively. Compared to preoperative values, the mean endothelial cell loss was 2.6% at 1 month, 4.9% at 1 year and 7.4% at 2 years. Pigmented or non-pigmented precipitates were observed in17 eyes (21.7%) which were treated with topical corticosteroids. At the second postoperative year, pigmented precipitates persisted in nine eyes. However, this was not associated with a loss of BSCVA. Conclusion: The implantation of Artiflex pIOL is an effective surgical option for the management of high myopia. The most common complication observed within 2 years of follow-up was accumulation of pigmented precipitates with no effect on the final BSCVA.
  2 2,416 244
Multifocal electroretinogram in normal emmetropic subjects: Correlation with optical coherence tomography
Rajvardhan Azad, Urmimala Ghatak, Yog Raj Sharma, Parijat Chandra
January-February 2012, 60(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91345  PMID:22218247
Aim of the Study: To establish the normative database for multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) parameters in a normal emmetropic population. To correlate the data so obtained with the central macular thickness obtained using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan. Materials and Methods: mfERG data were obtained from 222 eyes of 111 emmetropic subjects. The amplitude (nv/deg 2 ) and implicit times (ms) of the first-order kernel mfERG responses (N1, P1, and N2 waves) were obtained and grouped into five rings (Ring 1: Central 2°, Ring 2: 2-5°, Ring 3: 5-10°, Ring 4: 10-15°, Ring 5: >15°). The central macular thickness (CMT) was obtained using the macular thickness scan protocol of the OCT. Results: The mfERG data obtained were used to create a normative database. The amplitudes of the mfERG waves were maximum in the fovea and progressively decreased with increasing eccentricity (P = 0.0001). The latencies of the P1 and N2 waves were longest in the central ring and progressively shortened with eccentricity (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant correlations were observed between central ring 1 parameters and the CMT. Conclusion: This study establishes normative database for mfERG parameters in an emmetropic population. No statistically significant correlation was noted between CMT and mfERG parameters.
  2 2,827 292
Transient superior oblique paresis after injection of Botulinum Toxin A for facial rejuvenation
Mihir Kothari, Najeeha Shukri, Abdul Quayyum
January-February 2012, 60(1):77-78
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90496  PMID:22218260
  1 2,313 159
Comparison of immersion ultrasonography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of traumatic phacoceles
Harikrishna Vodapalli, Somasheila I Murthy, Subhadra Jalali, Mohammad Javed Ali, Padmaja Kumari Rani
January-February 2012, 60(1):63-65
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91352  PMID:22218252
Blunt ocular trauma in the elderly can result in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens into the subconjunctival space (phacocele). Although rare, this presentation can be missed, especially if the patient presents several days after the injury and if the lid is not everted on examination. While a careful clinical examination is adequate in the diagnosis, imaging techniques can be put to use for the accurate location of the associated sclera rupture. We report three cases of post-traumatic phacocele wherein ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was compared to the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and B-scan ultrasonography (B-scan), in order to establish the best imaging tool for this condition. We concluded, based on image quality, that UBM could be the imaging modality of choice to aid in the diagnosis of phacocele.
  - 3,850 213
Magnetic resonance imaging of intact globe superior subluxation into the intracranium
Nariman Nezami, Alireza Sadighi, Babak Rahimi-Ardabili
January-February 2012, 60(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91349  PMID:22218254
A 67-year-old man with right-sided blunt ocular trauma is reported here. Despite having received primary medical care, the patient complained of severe headache for 14 days. Initial computed tomography (CT) indicated hematoma in the right frontal lobe. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that the right globe along with its optic nerve had been intactly dislocated into the intracranium and differentiated from hematoma. In this case, the significance of MRI, in blunt ocular trauma work-up, and also regaining successful ocular function are highlighted.
  - 2,116 144
The Apple of our Eyes!
S Natarajan
January-February 2012, 60(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91332  PMID:22218237
  - 2,681 441

January-February 2012, 60(1):40-40
  - 1,249 101
First international assembly of ocular inflammation societies hosted by Uveitis Society of India
Narsing A Rao
January-February 2012, 60(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91333  PMID:22218238
  - 1,768 236
Tips in ophthalmic photography
Sripathi B Kamath, Suneetha Nithyanandam, Usha Vasu, R Raghavendra
January-February 2012, 60(1):74-74
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91338  PMID:22218257
  - 1,854 262
Author's reply
Swaranjit Singh Bhatti
January-February 2012, 60(1):75-75
  - 1,062 103
Comparison of patient satisfaction with services of vision centers in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, India
Vilas Kovai, Gullapalli N Rao, Brien Holden, Krishnaiah Sannapaneni, Shubhra K Bhattacharya, Rohit Khanna
January-February 2012, 60(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91341  PMID:22218258
  - 1,677 155
Possible vitreous involvement in a case with rapidly progressing choroidal neovascularization
Masayuki Hata, Akio Oishi, Michiko Mandai, Yasuo Kurimoto
January-February 2012, 60(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.91348  PMID:22218249
A 65-year-old man with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite the sequential treatments, the CNV grew larger and finally penetrated the retina. Vitreous adhesion was observed at the edge of the supraretinal fibrotic tissue. The case highlighted the possible unexpected side-effect of PDT. The upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor or the enhanced vitreous traction was considered to be responsible for the event.
  - 3,486 171