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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| March-April  | Volume 60 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 20, 2012

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Retinal arterial occlusions in the young: Systemic associations in Indian population
Dhanashree Ratra, Maneesh Dhupper
March-April 2012, 60(2):95-100
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94049  PMID:22446902
Purpose: To determine the systemic associations in retinal arterial occlusions (RAO) in young Indian individuals less than 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: Case records of 32 patients (35 eyes) of less than 40 years, with non-traumatic RAO were analysed. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmic and systemic evaluation including hemogram, lipid profile, coagulation profile, vasculitis screening, carotid Doppler, echocardiogram. Results: In the study 21 were males and 11 were females. The age ranged from 11-39 years (Mean 27.6 ± 8.43). Nine (28%) patients were below 20 years of age. Among 35 eyes, 28 (80%) had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), three (8.6%) had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), two (5.7%) each had cilio-retinal (CLAO) and hemi-retinal artery occlusion (HRAO). Vision ranged from no perception of light to 20/20. On systemic evaluation, in 21 (65.6%) patients a hypercoagulable state was responsible for the RAO. Conditions leading to a hypercoagulable state included hyperhomocysteinemia (21.9%), hyperlipidemia (15.6%), anticardiolipin antibody (6.2%), antiphospholipid antibody (6.2%), polycythemia, thrombocytosis, protein S deficiency, use of oral contraceptives and renal disorder (3.1% each). Six (18.7%) patients had cardiac valvular defects. Vasculitis screening was positive in three (9.4%) patients. Two (6.2%) had isolated systemic hypertension. In two (6.2%) patients no abnormality could be detected. Conclusion: The systemic associations of RAOs in the Indian population were distinctly different from those reported in the Western population. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest association found. Whereas associations reported in the Western population such as cardiac abnormalities, coagulation disorders, hemoglobinopathies and oral contraceptive use were uncommon.
  11 7,512 800
Smartphones in ophthalmology
Jay Chhablani, Simon Kaja, Vinay A Shah
March-April 2012, 60(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94054  PMID:22446908
The potential usefulness of smartphones in the medical field is evolving everyday. This article describes various tools available on smartphones, largely focusing on the iPhone, for the examination of an ophthalmic patient, for patient and physician education, as well as reference tools for both ophthalmologists and vision researchers. Furthermore, the present article discusses how smartphones can be used for ophthalmic photography and image management, and foremost, the usefulness of the applications such as the Eye Handbook for the ophthalmologist and interested students, patients, physicians, and researchers, currently available in the iPhone.
  8 7,436 605
Thyroid associated orbitopathy
Rajat Maheshwari, Ezekiel Weis
March-April 2012, 60(2):87-93
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94048  PMID:22446901
Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves' orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist.
  8 13,083 1,689
Fulminant toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis following intravitreal triamcinolone administration
Ryan Rush, Saumil Sheth
March-April 2012, 60(2):141-143
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94059  PMID:22446913
We report two cases of fulminant toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) administration. Case 1: A 42-year-old female received IVTA for presumed non-infectious panuveitis. Within 2 months, she developed diffuse macular retinochoroiditis with optic disc edema. Upon starting anti-toxoplasmic therapy (ATT), her intraocular inflammation resolved with catastrophic damage to the disc and macula. Case 2: A 30-year-old male received IVTA for presumed reactivation of previously scarred toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Despite simultaneous ATT, within 6 weeks, he developed extensive, multifocal macular retinochoroiditis. He continued to require ATT for 18 months and later underwent vitrectomy with silicone oil placement for severe epiretinal proliferation. Aqueous tap polymerase chain reactions were found positive for Toxoplasma gondii in both cases. In conclusion, IVTA administration can lead to fulminant toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis even when used with appropriate ATT. Extreme caution should be exercised while administering depot corticosteroids in eyes with panuveitis of unknown origin.
  4 2,614 185
Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma
Pravin Salunke, Amey Savardekar, Sukumar Sura
March-April 2012, 60(2):149-150
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90491  PMID:22446916
Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.
  3 4,132 204
Completion rates of anterior and posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis in pediatric cataract surgery for surgery performed by trainee surgeons with the use of a low-cost viscoelastic
R Muralidhar, GS Siddalinga Swamy, P Vijayalakshmi
March-April 2012, 60(2):144-146
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90492  PMID:22446914
Context : Pediatric cataract surgery is traditionally done with the aid of high-molecular-weight viscoelastics which are expensive. It needs to be determined if low-cost substitutes are just as successful. Aims : The study aims to determine the success rates for anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the bag for pediatric cataract surgery performed with the aid of a low-molecular-weight viscoelastic. Settings and Design : Nonrandomized observational study. Materials and Methods: Children less than 6 years of age who underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation in the period May 2008-May 2009 were included. The surgeries were done by pediatric ophthalmology fellows. A standard procedure of anterior capsulorrhexis, lens aspiration with primary posterior capsulorrhexis, anterior vitrectomy, and IOL implantation was followed. Three parameters were studied: successful completion of anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis and IOL implantation in the bag. Results: 33 eyes of 28 children were studied. The success rate for completion was 66.7% and 88.2 % for anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis, respectively. IOL implantation in the bag was successful in 87.9%. Conclusions: 2% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is a viable low-cost alternative to more expensive options similar to high-molecular-weight viscoelastics. This is of great relevance to hospitals in developing countries.
  2 3,025 186
Unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection
Padmamalini Mahendradas, Kavitha Avadhani, Venkatramana Anandula, Rohit Shetty
March-April 2012, 60(2):134-136
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94056  PMID:22446910
We report a case of unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in an immunocompetent individual. A 44-year-old male presented with complaints of pain and yellowish discharge in the right eye for one week. Patient underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and relevant laboratory investigations. Anterior segment examination revealed localized conjunctival and episcleral congestion with conjunctival ulceration on the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye. Gram's stain revealed gram-negative bacilli. Culture and sensitivity revealed S. maltophilia and responded well to topical moxifloxacin with systemic co-trimoxazole therapy.
  2 5,688 192
Floppy iris syndrome with oral imipramine: A case series
Arvind Gupta, Renuka Srinivasan
March-April 2012, 60(2):136-138
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94057  PMID:22446911
Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) has commonly been seen with long-term use of α1-adrenoceptor blocking agents. We observed IFIS in three patients during phacoemulsification due to oral imipramine therapy. The three patients took imipramine for 25 years, 10 months and 1 year, respectively. However, only the first patient was on oral therapy at the time of surgery, while the other two patients had stopped 4 months and 2 months prior to undergoing phacoemulsification. The first and third patients developed complete IFIS features, while the second had only partial IFIS characteristics. Phacoemulsification could be completed in all three patients without any complication. None of these patients had history of taking any of the α1-adrenoceptor blocking agents. This is the first anecdotal report of IFIS with the oral use of imipramine and hence further evidences are required to ascertain the association of oral imipramine therapy and IFIS. However, ophthalmologists undertaking phacoemulsification on patients on imipramine therapy should be alert for the occurrence of IFIS.
  2 2,435 160
Aggravation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy after cataract surgery
Moosang Kim, Jisang Han, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung-Woo Kwak
March-April 2012, 60(2):162-163
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94070  PMID:22446925
  2 2,186 147
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for the management of iatrogenic keratectasia occurring after hexagonal keratotomy
Paras Mehta, Varsha M Rathi, Somasheila I Murthy
March-April 2012, 60(2):139-141
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94058  PMID:22446912
Iatrogenic keratectasia has been reported subsequent to refractive surgery or trauma. Hexagonal keratotomy (HK) is a surgical incisional technique to correct hyperopia. A number of complications have been reported following this procedure, including irregular astigmatism, wound healing abnormalities and corneal ectasia. When visual acuity is poor because of ectasia or irregular astigmatism and contact lens fitting is not possible, penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty can be performed. Since incisions in refractive keratotomy are set at 90-95% depth of cornea, intraoperative microperforations are known to occur and lamellar keratoplasty may become difficult. We describe deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) used to successfully manage keratectasia after HK. Pre DALK vision was 20/400 and post DALK vision was 20/30 two months after surgery. This report aims to show improved visual outcome in corneal ectasia secondary to HK. DALK can be a procedure of choice with proper case selection.
  1 2,976 148
Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency
Sayan Basu, Mukesh Taneja, Raja Narayanan, Sirisha Senthil, Virender S Sangwan
March-April 2012, 60(2):151-153
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94060  PMID:22446917
This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro) implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD). Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.
  1 3,078 222
Is it really a study of community-acquired bacterial infections?
Shivcharan L Chandravanshi
March-April 2012, 60(2):157-158
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94064  PMID:22446921
  1 1,800 113
Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bilateral Acute Dacryocystitis in a Neonate
Shivcharan Lal Chandravanshi, Suresh Kumar Sutrakar, Naresh Bajaj
March-April 2012, 60(2):155-156
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94062  PMID:22446919
  1 3,073 157
Comparison of visual acuity estimates using three different letter charts under two ambient room illuminations
Ai-Hong Chen, Fatin Nur Najwa Norazman, Noor Halilah Buari
March-April 2012, 60(2):101-104
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90489  PMID:22446903
Background: Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. Materials and Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 and 23 years old (7 males, 23 females), with their spherical refractive error ranging between plano and −7.75D, astigmatism ranging from plano to −1.75D, anisometropia less than 1.00D and with no history of ocular injury or pathology. Right eye visual acuity (recorded in logMAR unit) was measured with Snellen letter chart (Snellen), wall mounted letter chart (WM) and projected letter chart (PC) under two ambient room illuminations, room light on and room light off. Results: Visual acuity estimates showed no statistically significant difference when measured with the room light on and with the room light off (F1,372 = 0.26, P = 0.61). Post-hoc analysis with Tukey showed that visual acuity estimates were significantly different between the Snellen and PC (P = 0.009) and between Snellen and WM (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Different levels of ambient room illumination had no significant effect on visual acuity estimates. However, the discrepancies in estimates of visual acuity noted in this study were purely due to the type of letter chart used.
  1 4,324 322
Effect of dacryocystorhinostomy on systemic adverse effects of topical timolol maleate
Kakoli Roy, Kanchan Kumar Mondal, Biswarup Ray, Soumen Chakraborty, Supreeti Biswas, Bijoy Kumar Baral
March-April 2012, 60(2):105-107
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94050  PMID:22446904
Purpose: To evaluate whether transformation of the naso-lacrimal passage as happens after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) operation has any effect on the systemic adverse effects of topically administered timolol maleate. Materials and Methods: Fifty otherwise healthy adult patients without any prior history of cardiac or pulmonary problems scheduled for elective DCR surgery received a drop of timolol maleate 0.5% on the healthy eye. This eye served as a control. Six weeks after successful DCR surgery, the operated eye received the same medication. Parameters compared included intraocular pressure (IOP), pulse rate, blood pressure and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) findings. Observations: Post DCR patients showed an increased incidence of reduced pulse rate and FEV1. Conclusion: Timolol maleate ophthalmic preparation should be used with caution in post-DCR patients.
  1 2,754 230
Sphingosine-1 phosphate prevents ethanol-induced corneal epithelial apoptosis
Pierre Fournie, Stéphane Galiacy, Marie-Laure Ranty, Isabelle Rico-Lattes, François Malecaze, Jean-Claude Quintyn
March-April 2012, 60(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94052  PMID:22446906
Background: Apoptosis is a programmed cell death in multicellular organisms, found in a wide variety of conditions, including inflammatory process, everywhere in the body, including the cornea and conjunctiva. Aim: To evaluate the effect of a new topical formulation of sphingosine-1 phosphate on preventing apoptosis of the corneal epithelium. Setting: Medical University. Materials and Methods: We tested several formulations suitable for topical application. Twenty-five rabbits were distributed among five groups. Group 1 comprised the controls. In Group 2, 20% ethanol was applied topically for 20 seconds; in Group 3, 50 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours prior to 20% ethanol application. In Group 4, 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours before the 20% ethanol application. In Group 5, only 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Pairwise comparisons were performed using t-tests with Scheffe's correction. Data were analyzed using STATA 9.0 statistical software. Results: A suspension of sphingosine-1 phosphate in the presence of Montanox 80 was stable and could be formulated without sonication. Epithelial apoptosis was detected only in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Sphingosine-1 phosphate can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis in the corneal epithelium of rabbits.
  1 3,055 127
Therapy for Ocular Angiogenesis: Principles and Practice
S Natarajan
March-April 2012, 60(2):165-165
  - 1,470 116
Shields Textbook of Glaucoma
Anupam Deshpande
March-April 2012, 60(2):167-167
  - 2,084 245
Bilateral spontaneous dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens in a patient with gyrate atrophy
Michael Kinori, Howard Desatnik, Joseph Moisseiev
March-April 2012, 60(2):133-134
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94055  PMID:22446909
We report a patient with gyrate atrophy, a rare metabolic disease, who had bilateral late spontaneous posterior dislocation of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL). He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, PCIOL retrieval and anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. This report may imply that patients with gyrate atrophy are at risk for spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lenses.
  - 2,747 170
A truly knotless technique for scleral fixation of intraocular lenses: Two-year results
Naresh K Yadav, Vasudha Kemmanu, Mayuri Bhargava, Bhujanga Shetty
March-April 2012, 60(2):147-148
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.90493  PMID:22446915
Scleral fixated intraocular lens (SFIOL) is a safe and effective option for managing optical aphakia. Suture related complications like suture erosion, suture breakage, endophthalmitis, etc. are unique to SFIOL. The knots can be covered by partial thickness flaps or they can be rotated into scleral tissues without flaps to reduce the complications. We performed a recently described novel technique which obviates the need for knot and scleral flaps in securing the SFIOL. This novel 2-point Ab externo knotless technique may reduce the knot related problems. Twenty-three eyes undergoing this knotless SFIOL procedure were analyzed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Twenty-two eyes either maintained or improved on their preoperative vision. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 24 months.
  - 4,384 333
Greetings from the editors desk!
S Natarajan
March-April 2012, 60(2):85-86
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94047  PMID:22446900
  - 2,278 191
Pain-free cataract surgery in patients with cardiac risk
Swati Zawar, Ravindra Kolte
March-April 2012, 60(2):157-157
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94063  PMID:22446920
  - 2,522 182
DNA chip-assisted diagnosis for ocular toxoplasmosis: A comment
Viroj Wiwanitkit
March-April 2012, 60(2):164-164
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94071  PMID:22446926
  - 1,671 138
Impact of a month-long training program on the clinical skills of ophthalmology residents and practitioners
Namrata Kabra
March-April 2012, 60(2):155-155
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94061  PMID:22446918
  - 1,821 126
Toxic optic neuropathy
Elin Lee, Sanjay Srinivasan
March-April 2012, 60(2):159-159
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94065  PMID:22446922
  - 2,426 204
Feed back of the parents and / or relatives witnessing a squint surgery of their ward in the operation theatre
Suresh Ramchandani, Sushama Ramchandani
March-April 2012, 60(2):159-160
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94066  PMID:22446923
  - 2,027 103
Authors' reply
Mihir Kothari, Ricky Menon
March-April 2012, 60(2):160-161
  - 1,660 82
Comment on: Feedback of the patients and/or relatives witnessing a squint surgery of their ward in operation theatre
Ankur Sinha, Ajay Jhinja, Ajay Gupta, Dharamveer Choudhary
March-April 2012, 60(2):161-162
  - 1,775 94
Author reply
Mihir Kothari
March-April 2012, 60(2):162-162
  - 1,384 85
Principles and practice of external digital photography in ophthalmology
Bipasha Mukherjee, Akshay Gopinathan Nair
March-April 2012, 60(2):119-125
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94053  PMID:22446907
It is mandatory to incorporate clinical photography in an ophthalmic practice. Patient photographs are routinely used in teaching, presentations, documenting surgical outcomes and marketing. Standardized clinical photographs are part of an armamentarium for any ophthalmologist interested in enhancing his or her practice. Unfortunately, many clinicians still avoid taking patient photographs for want of basic knowledge or inclination. The ubiquitous presence of the digital camera and digital technology has made it extremely easy and affordable to take high-quality images. It is not compulsory to employ a professional photographer or invest in expensive equipment any longer for this purpose. Any ophthalmologist should be able to take clinical photographs in his/her office settings with minimal technical skill. The purpose of this article is to provide an ophthalmic surgeon with guidelines to achieve standardized photographic views for specific procedures, to achieve consistency, to help in pre-operative planning and to produce accurate pre-operative and post-operative comparisons, which will aid in self-improvement, patient education, medicolegal documentation and publications. This review also discusses editing, storage, patient consent, medicolegal issues and importance of maintenance of patient confidentiality.
  - 4,794 389
Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children
Mihir Kothari, Suvarna Balankhe, Shalaka Paralkar, Deepali Nar, Shreya Bhagat, Shashank Ranade
March-April 2012, 60(2):109-114
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.94051  PMID:22446905
Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO) with dynamic retinoscopy (DR) in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years). Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years) and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years) demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children). Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa) 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30), the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5). Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.
  - 7,004 349