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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| November  | Volume 61 | Issue 11  
    Online since December 16, 2013

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Dislocation of polyfocal full-optics accommodative intraocular lens after neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet capsulotomy in vitrectomized eye
Kyung Tae Kang, Yu Cheol Kim
November 2013, 61(11):678-680
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119335  PMID:24145560
We report a case of dislocation of WIOL-CF® polyfocal full-optics intraocular lens (IOL) after neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser capsulotomy in the vitrectomized eye. At 22 months before the dislocation of the IOL, a 55-year-old male patient underwent phacoemulsification with WIOL-CF® IOL implantation in a local clinic and 10 months after the cataract surgery the patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy, endolaser photocoagulation and 14% C 3 F 8 gas tamponade for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. At 9 months after the vitrectomy, the patient visited our clinic for a sudden decrease of vision after Nd: YAG capsulotomy in the local clinic. On fundus examination, the dislocated IOL was identified and the Nd: YAG capsulotomy site and the larger break, which is suspected to have been a route of the dislocation were observed in the posterior capsule.
  1 1,323 128
Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia
Rohit Saxena, Shraddha Puranik, Digvijay Singh, Vimla Menon, Pradeep Sharma, Swati Phuljhele
November 2013, 61(11):630-633
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123144  PMID:24343594
Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score) at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74%) patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014). Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048) and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03) were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.
  1 1,552 269
IIH with normal CSF pressures?
Soh Youn Suh, Seong-Joon Kim
November 2013, 61(11):681-682
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119416  PMID:24145570
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.
  - 3,517 148
The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later
Cagatay Caglar, Zeliha Caglar, Adem Gul
November 2013, 61(11):667-669
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119331  PMID:24145559
A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in the right eye.
  - 2,440 141
Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis after photo refractive keratectomy
Gian Maria Cavallini, Pietro Ducange, Veronica Volante, Caterina Benatti
November 2013, 61(11):669-671
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.120213  PMID:24178402
A 39-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), performed two weeks prior; slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ulcer and stromal infiltration. After 5 days of antifungal and antibacteric treatment, the infiltrate progressively increased so that a therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary. The microbiological analyses revealed the presence of fungal filaments. Twenty days after surgery the patient had recurrent fungal infiltrate in the donor cornea with wound dehiscence. We performed a second penetrating keratoplasty. With the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight analysis (MALDI-TOF) we identified a Fusarium solani.Intravenous amphothericine B, a combination of intracameral and intrastromal voriconazole and intracameral amphotericine B were administered. After 6 months from the last surgery the infection was eradicated. The management of fungal keratitis after PRK depends on many factors: In our experience, a prompt keratoplasty and the use of intracameral antifungal medication proved to be very effective.
  - 2,036 126
Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis
Rose Mary Tomy, Padma B Prabhu
November 2013, 61(11):671-673
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119318  PMID:24145557
Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.
  - 1,890 149
Cataract surgery in juvenile xanthogranuloma: Case report and a brief review of literature
R Muralidhar, Ashish Jain, P Vijayalakshmi, G Suparna, R Santhi, Shashikanth Shetty
November 2013, 61(11):673-675
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119336  PMID:24145561
There is limited literature on the management of cataracts in juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). A 2-month-old girl presented to us with hyphema, secondary glaucoma OU and skin nodules suggestive of JXG. She developed bilateral cataracts during her follow-up and was treated successfully with cataract surgery and aphakic rehabilitation.
  - 1,401 113
Delayed diagnosis of ocular syphilis that manifested as retinal vasculitis and acute posterior multifocal placoid epitheliopathy
Jong Hoon Park, Soo Geun Joe, Young Hee Yoon
November 2013, 61(11):676-678
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119415  PMID:24145569
A 55-year-old female presented with bilateral progressive retinal vasculitis. She was on systemic and intravitreal steroids on the basis of uveitis work-up result (negative result including rapid plasma reagin), but her visual acuity continued to deteriorate to light perception only. Ocular examination showed retinal vasculitis, multiple yellow placoid lesions and severe macula edema in both eyes. Repeated work-up revealed positivity of fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption in serum and subsequently in cerebrospinal fluid. Ocular syphilis was diagnosed. And intravenous penicillin G resulted in rapid resolution of vasculitis and macular edema. To avoid delay in the diagnosis of ocular syphilis, high index of suspicion and repeating serological tests (including both treponemal and non-treponemal tests) are warranted.
  - 2,081 207
Minimally invasive vitreo retinal surgery: How small do we go?
Sundaram Natarajan
November 2013, 61(11):619-620
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123108  PMID:24343591
  - 973 184
Macular hemorrhage as a cause of acute angle closure
Gwyn Samuel Williams, Luke Anderson, David Eddyshaw
November 2013, 61(11):683-684
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123148  PMID:24343597
  - 718 95
Treatment of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy
Colin S H Tan, Louis W Lim, Wei Kiong Ngo, Kai Xiong Cheong
November 2013, 61(11):684-684
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123149  PMID:24343598
  - 804 105
Corrrection of exotropia by implantable collamer lens
Siddharth Agrawal, Vinita Singh, Astha Jain
November 2013, 61(11):685-685
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119411  PMID:24145567
  - 806 112
The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio may be useful inflammatory indicator before applying other expensive and invasive procedures
Sait Demirkol, Sevket Balta, Ugur Kucuk, Hilal Olgun Kucuk, Omer Kurt, Hakan Sarlak
November 2013, 61(11):685-685
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123150  PMID:24343599
  - 669 109
Mean platelet volume as a marker of branch retinal vein occlusion may be influenced by many factors
Yakup Aksoy, Yusuf Emrah Eyi, Taner Kar, Mehmet Koray Sevinc
November 2013, 61(11):686-687
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119414  PMID:24145568
  - 882 105
Author's Reply
Ekta Rishi, Lingam Gopal, Pukhraj Rishi, Sabyasachi Sengupta, Tarun Sharma
November 2013, 61(11):687-688
  - 654 74
Comment on "Submacular hemorrhage: A study among Indian eyes
Kamal Kishore, Anthony S Ekong
November 2013, 61(11):688-689
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123151  PMID:24343600
  - 464 85
Query to the author of "Spectacle compliance amongst rural secondary school children in Pune district, India"
Jatinder Bali, Bali Renu Thakur
November 2013, 61(11):689-689
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.118459  PMID:24088638
  - 728 93
Author's reply
Parikshit Gogate, Debapriya Mukhopadhyaya, Ashok Mahadik, Thomas John Naduvilath, Amit Shinde
November 2013, 61(11):690-691
  - 676 69
Low-fluence PDT better than anti-vascular endothelial growth factor
KS Santhan Gopal
November 2013, 61(11):691-691
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121181  PMID:24343601
  - 717 104
Platelet indices in retinal vein occlusion in hypertensive patients
Ercan Varol, Mehmet Ozaydin
November 2013, 61(11):692-692
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121136  PMID:24343602
  - 1,492 107
Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents
Wang Yulan, Sheng Yaohua, Tao Jinhua, Wang Min
November 2013, 61(11):659-662
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.120224  PMID:24178407
Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco) performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP). Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents' procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021). Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference). Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.
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Evaluation of anterior segment parameters using pentacam in silicone oil-injected patients after pars plana vitrectomy
Burcu Çalik, Muzaffer Öztürk, Hüseyin Serdarogullari, Mustafa Elçioglu
November 2013, 61(11):621-625
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123137  PMID:24343592
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate anterior segment changes with Pentacam Scheimpflug camera after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil injection. Materials and Methods: In all, 44 eyes of 44 patients who underwent PPV by one surgeon were evaluated with Pentacam preoperatively, first week, and first month after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups, eyes with silicone injection after PPV and eyes with PPV and no endotamponade. Main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and central corneal thickness (CCT) obtained with pentacam. Results: Each group consisted of 22 patients. In both groups no significant difference was detected among preop and postop changes in ACV and ACA values ( p > 0.05). The increase in ACD in silicone oil-injected group and the decrease in ACD in PPV group at postop 1 week were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). The increase in CCT in silicone oil-injected group at postop 1 week and then decrease in postop 1 month were also significant ( p < 0.05). Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was 3.7 Dioptry (D) in silicone oil-injected group and 2.4 D in PPV group at postop 1 week. SIA decreased to 1.7 D and 1.5 D, respectively, at postop 1 month. Changes in SIA were significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: PPV effects cornea and anterior segment. Changes in cornea and anterior segment after PPV seem to return to preoperative values among 1 month after surgery.
  - 966 143
Visual outcome and rotational stability of open loop toric intraocular lens implantation in Indian eyes
Arvind Venkataraman, Kalpana
November 2013, 61(11):626-629
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123142  PMID:24343593
Purpose: To assess the visual outcome and rotational stability of single-piece open loop toric Intra Ocular Lens (IOL) in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 122 eyes of 77 patients were followed up for a period of 12 months after cataract surgery with toric open loop IOL implantation. The pre-operative markings for the position of incision and IOL placement were done under slit lamp by anterior stromal puncture. The visual acuity, refraction, and IOL position were assessed at day 1, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 56 yrs (S.D. 13.88; range 16 to 87 years). The mean pre-operative cylinder of corneal astigmatism was 1.37 D. (SD 0.79, range 1.0 to 5.87 D). Mean post-operative refractive cylinder was 0.36 D (SD 0.57, range 0 to 1.50 D) at 12 months. Ninety-seven percent of the eyes were within 1 D of residual astigmatism. Ninety-four percent of patients had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/30 or better. Four eyes required IOL repositioning due to rotation. At 12 months, 96.7% of the IOLs were within 10 degrees of the target axis. There was no rotation seen after 6 months. Conclusion: Toric IOLs are very effective and consistent in correcting astigmatism during the cataract surgery. IOL rotation happens mostly within a month of surgery, and if significant, requires early repositioning.
  - 1,587 260
Flash visual evoked potentials in patients with periventricular leucomalacia in children less than 1 year of age
Jitendra Jethani, Monika Jethani
November 2013, 61(11):634-635
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.123146  PMID:24343595
Background and Aim: Children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) are known to have visual impairment of various forms starting from reduced vision, field defects, congnitive problems, and problems with hand eye coordination. There is very scant data/literature on the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) at an early age in children with PVL. We did a study to evaluate the flash visual evoked potentials (fVEPs) in children with PVL less than 1 year of age. Materials and Methods: A total of nine children diagnosed as having PVL on magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. The mean age was 9.7μ 3.5 months. All children underwent handheld fVEPs under sedation at two different flash frequencies 1.4 and 8 Hz. Results: The mean latency of N1 and P1 on stimulation with 1.4 Hz was 47.9μ 15.2 and 77.7μ 26.0 ms, respectively. However, on stimulation with 8 Hz the mean latency of N1 and P1 was 189.8μ 25.6 and 238.4μ 33.6 ms, respectively. The mean amplitude with 1.4 Hz and 8 stimulation frequency was 5.6μ 4.5 and 5.59μ 3 mV, respectively. Conclusion: We have found for the first time that there is a change in the latency and the delay occurs at 8 Hz frequency but not at 1.4 Hz. We also conclude that amplitudes by fVEPs may be normal even in presence of periventricular changes. The amplitudes of fVEPs are not reliable in children with PVL.
  - 1,523 237
Outcome of surgery in post-cytomegalovirus retinal detachment: Experience before and in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in Indian eyes
Ramandeep Singh, Swapnil Bhalekar, Swapnil Parchand, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Mangat R Dogra, Amod Gupta
November 2013, 61(11):636-639
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119426  PMID:24145573
Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cytomegalovirus associated retinal detachment (CMVRD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART era in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, we reviewed medical records of all consecutive HIV patients, who underwent surgical repair for CMVRD from July 1998 to June 2011. We divided patients into two groups, i.e. group 1, pre HAART era and group 2, HAART era. We compared two groups for various parameters like visual outcome, surgical success, additional procedures, follow-up, etc., Results: Twenty-eight eyes of 26 patients were included; 12 eyes of the 11 patients in group 1 and 16 eyes of the 15 patients in group 2. Significant visual acuity improvement was seen in both groups. Complete anatomic success was seen in 11 eyes in group 1 and 15 eyes in group 2. One additional procedure in group 1 and 29 additional procedures were done in group 2. A mean follow-up was 16 months in group 1 and 41 months in group 2. Conclusion: There was no difference in outcome in pre-HAART and HAART group, except for longer follow-up and additional surgical procedures in HAART group.
  - 1,235 137
Analysis of prenatal and postnatal risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care hospital in South India
Krishna A Rao, Jayashree Purkayastha, Manali Hazarika, Raghuvamsi Chaitra, K Mithun Adith
November 2013, 61(11):640-644
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119347  PMID:24145565
Context: Recent advances in neonatology have influenced the incidence and severity of ROP in a dichotomous fashion. Aims: To determine the incidence of ROP and to analyse its risk factors. Settings and Design: Prospective clinical case series. Materials and Methods: 282 preterm infants with birthweight < 1500g and/or gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and also those with gestational age > 32 weeks, with birthweight between 1500-2000 g, who were at risk for ROP were selected. Weight gain proportion was measured as weight at 6 weeks minus birthweight divided by birthweight. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Incidence of any ROP was 21.6% while severe ROP was 6.7%. Prenatal factors like multiple gestation (P = 0.510) and antenatal steroids (P = 0.104) were not significantly associated with ROP. On multivariate analysis, postnatal factors like weight at birth < 1250 g (P = 0.01) and gestational age between 31-32 weeks (P = 0.02) were independent risk factors for any ROP, while intraventricular hemorrhage (P = 0.03) was the only independent risk factor for severe ROP. Mean birthweight of infants with severe ROP was 1056 μ 207 g (P = 0.004), which was significantly low. After logistic regression, the mean weight gain proportion at 6 weeks, of those neonates with severe ROP was 30%. Conclusions: Low birthweight and prematurity were the most important risk factors for developing any ROP, while intraventricular hemorrhage was the independent risk factor for developing severe ROP. The mean postnatal weight gain at 6 weeks was not statistically significant in neonates with severe ROP.
  - 2,054 350
Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery
Je Hwan Yoon, Kyun-Hyung Kim, Jong Yeon Lee, Dong Heun Nam
November 2013, 61(11):645-648
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119341  PMID:24145563
Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes). The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D) for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139). At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309). The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less) would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.
  - 3,000 432
Profile of serpiginous choroiditis in a tertiary eye care centre in eastern India
Kumar Saurabh, Pradeep Kumar Panigrahi, Amitabh Kumar, Rupak Roy, Jyotirmay Biswas
November 2013, 61(11):649-652
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.119409  PMID:24145566
Purpose: To study the clinical profile of serpiginous choroiditis in eastern India. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one eyes of 54 patients with serpiginous choroiditis presenting to a tertiary care centre in eastern India between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in the study. Clinical presentation, treatment given, and visual outcome of the eyes were studied. Results: Thirty-five (64.8%) patients were male and 19 (35.2%) were female in the age group of 13-62 years (mean age: 34.1 μ 18.7 years). Blurring of vision (71; 78%) and floaters (36; 39.5%) were commonest symptoms. In 75 (82.4%) eyes, choroiditis started from optic nerve head and spreading centrifugally. Overall, 38 (41.75%) eyes had macular involvement at first visit. Mantoux test reading was 10 mm or more (Group A) in 12 (22.22%) patients and less than 10 mm (Group B) in 42 (77.77%) patients. Difference between Groups A and B in macular involvement at first visit (10; 50% vs. 28; 39.4%) and rate of recurrence (3; 15% vs. 14; 19.7%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.37 and 0.68). Oral steroid (51; 94.4%) was the commonest mode of treatment. Fifty-one (56%) eyes had two lines or more improvement in vision. Conclusions: The present study details the clinical presentation, treatment, and visual outcome of serpiginous choroiditis. Mantoux test reading does not affect the clinical presentation or the treatment outcome in these eyes.
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Morphision: A method for subjective evaluation of metamorphopsia in patients with unilateral macular pathology (i.e., full thickness macular hole and epiretinal membrane)
Marta Ugarte, Manoharan Shunmugam, D Alistair H Laidlaw, Tom H Williamson
November 2013, 61(11):653-658
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.117804  PMID:24008785
Background: Lack of clinical tests to quantify spatial components of distortion in patients with full thickness macular holes (FTMH) and epiretinal membranes (ERM). Aim: To develop a test for subjective evaluation of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation in patients with unilateral FTMH or ERM. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study carried out at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with unilateral macular disease (13 macular epiretinal membranes, 12 full-thickness macular holes), and nine controls (without ocular pathology) underwent ophthalmological examination with logMAR ETDRS visual acuity, near vision and contrast sensitivity assessed. Macular optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia assessment using Morphision test was also carried out. This test consists of a set of modified Amsler charts for detection, identification, and subjective quantification of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation. Morphision test content and construct validity, and reliability (test-retest method) were evaluated. Sixteen patients completed an unstructured survey on test performance and preference. Results: Every patient with unilateral FTMH or ERM identified a particular chart using Morphision test (content validity). None of the normal subjects without symptoms of metamorphopsia identified any distortion (construct validity). Test-retest showed a 100% consistency for frequency and 67% for amplitude. The mean amplitude difference between measurements was 0.02 degrees (SD = 0.038). The coefficient of repeatability was 0.075. There was a correlation between Morphision amplitude score and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, individually. Conclusions: Morphision test allowed detection and subjective quantification of metamorphopsia in the clinical setting in our patients with unilateral macular epiretinal membranes and full thickness macular holes.
  - 3,176 165
Morphological features of choroidal metastases: An OCT analysis
Ludovico Iannetti, Roberta Zito, Paolo Tortorella
November 2013, 61(11):663-664
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121148  PMID:24343596
The morphological characteristics and retinal changes of chroidal metastases using Spectral Domain OCT are described in a case with primary lung adenocarcinoma and secondary choroidal involvement.
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Choroidal neovascularization in a case of angioid streaks
Manish Nagpal, Sidharth Bhardwaj
November 2013, 61(11):665-666
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116454  PMID:24008786
  - 722 130