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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| December  | Volume 61 | Issue 12  
    Online since January 9, 2014

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A case of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus as a result of ranibizumab (Lucentis) treatment
Marko Andric, Shreya Dixit, Dana Robaei, Rosemary Watchorn, Nitin Verma
December 2013, 61(12):752-754
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121133  PMID:24212210
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a previously undiagnosed side-effect of ranibizumab. Here, we present a case of an 82-year-old female Caucasian patient with wet age-related macular degeneration. Following a single intraocular injection of Lucentis (ranibizumab), she developed a subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus which, with treatment, took nearly 12 months to resolve. This shows that cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a potential side-effect of many medications, including ranibizumab, as in our case and, in an aging population where polypharmacy is a growing reality, clinicians should be aware of how to diagnose and best manage such cases.
  2 4,610 164
Pseudomyopia in intermittent exodeviation: Comment
Suma Ganesh, Sumita Sethi, Varshini Shanker
December 2013, 61(12):775-775
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.117785  PMID:24008782
  1 1,197 158
Screening for visual impairment: Outcome among school children in a rural area of Delhi - Suggestions to improve compliance
Rajesh S Joshi
December 2013, 61(12):777-777
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111196  PMID:23619498
  1 834 130
Effect of bevacizumab (Avastin TM ) on mitochondrial function of in vitro retinal pigment epithelial, neurosensory retinal and microvascular endothelial cells
Saurabh Luthra, Ashish Sharma, Joyce Dong, Aneesh Neekhra, Ana L Gramajo, Gail M Seigel, M Cristina Kenney, Baruch D Kuppermann
December 2013, 61(12):705-710
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124750  PMID:24413824
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of bevacizumab on the mitochondrial function of human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19), rat neurosensory retinal (R28) and human microvascular endothelial (HMVEC) cells in culture. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 and R28 cells were treated with 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/ml of bevacizumab. The HMVEC cultures were treated with 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/ml of bevacizumab or 1 mg/ml of immunoglobulin G (control). Mitochondrial function assessed by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MDA) was determined using the WST-1 assay. Results: Bevacizumab doses of 0.125 to 1 mg/ml for 5 days did not significantly affect the MDA of ARPE-19 cells. Bevacizumab treatment at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/ml (clinical dose) did not significantly affect the MDA of R28 cells; however, 0.50 and 1 mg/ml doses significantly reduced the R28 cell mitochondrial function. All doses of bevacizumab significantly reduced the MDA of proliferating and non-proliferating HMVEC. Conclusion: Bevacizumab exposure for 5 days was safe at clinical doses in both ARPE-19 and R28 retinal neurosensory cells in culture. By contrast, bevacizumab exposure at all doses show a significant dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial activity in both the proliferating and non-proliferating HMVEC in vitro. This suggests a selective action of bevacizumab on endothelial cells at clinical doses.
  1 1,368 178
Dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: A hospital based study
Bhatiwada Nidhi, Bangera Sheshappa Mamatha, Chamrajnagar Anantharajiah Padmaprabhu, Prabhu Pallavi, Baskaran Vallikannan
December 2013, 61(12):722-727
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.120218  PMID:24178404
Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women) above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2%) participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8%) and 14 (0.4%) subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22) and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46). However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51) and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22). Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z) and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001) with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions : Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.
  1 3,343 337
Assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC) in normal Indian children
Mayuri B Khamar, Vaishali Vasavada, Sajani K Shah, Rupal H Trivedi, Ravi Thomas
December 2013, 61(12):728-733
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121107  PMID:24212204
Purpose: To obtain reference values of RNFL thickness in normal Indian children and to study the association of RNFL thickness with central corneal thickness(CCT) and axial length(AL). Materials and Methods: 200 normal Indian children (mean age 8.6 ± 2.9 yrs) were examined on the GDxVCC. The inferior average (IA), superior average (SA), temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average and nerve fiber index (NFI) values were recorded and compared between males and females as well as between the different age groups. The association of TSNIT average with AL and CCT was examined. Results: Values for the RNFL parameters were-SA: 64.9 ± 9.7, IA: 63.8 ± 8.8, TSNIT average: 53.5 ± 7.7 and NFI 21.5 ± 10.8. Superior, inferior and TSNIT averages did not differ significantly between males and females (P = 0.25, P = 0.19, P = 0.06 respectively; Mann-Whitney U test). No significant differences were found in TSNIT average across age groups. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between CCT and TSNIT average (r = 0.25, r 2 = 0.06, P < 0.001). The correlation TSNIT average and AL(r = −0.12; r2 = 0.01) was not significant (P = 0.2). Conclusion: Reference values for RNFL parameters reported for Indian children are similar those reported in adults. There is a small correlation between central corneal thickness and RNFL as reflected in average TSNIT.
  1 1,670 139
A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology
Bryan J Matthews, David Partridge, Richard M Sheard, Ian G Rennie, Hardeep Singh Mudhar
December 2013, 61(12):763-765
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124773  PMID:24413827
A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario.
  - 869 128
Evaluation of brimonidine-timolol fixed combination in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma
Sachin R Joshi, Pramod B Akat, Jaiprakash B Ramanand, Sunita J Ramanand, Vitthal B Karande, Suyog S Jain
December 2013, 61(12):765-767
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116456  PMID:24008808
The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fixed combination of brimonidine and timolol with individual components used as monotherapy in patients of primary open angle glaucoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive brimonidine or timolol or brimonidine-timolol fixed combination, with 30 patients in each group. The mean reduction in intraocular pressure in brimonidine, timolol, and brimonidine-timolol group were 4.29 ± 1.97 mm Hg, 4.34 ± 1.21 mm Hg, and 5.54 ± 1.87 mm Hg respectively at 2 weeks and 4.86 ± 1.16 mm Hg, 5.42 ± 1.50 mm Hg, and 7.36 ± 2.58 mm Hg respectively at 6 weeks. When values of mean reduction in intraocular pressure were compared between brimonidine-timolol fixed combination with brimonidine and timolol, it was found to be statistically significant ( P < 0.05) at 2 weeks and highly significant (0.001) at 6 weeks. The overall frequency of adverse effects was similar in all three groups.
  - 1,476 267
Congenital orbital teratoma
Shereen Aiyub, WengOnn Chan, John Szetu, Laurence J Sullivan, John Pater, Peter Cooper, Dinesh Selva
December 2013, 61(12):767-769
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111219  PMID:23619505
We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.
  - 2,321 154
Corneal arcus and xanthomas in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: First report from China
Xin Meng, Jie Lin, Xinxiao Gao, Jia Guo, Chen Xin, Jun Wang
December 2013, 61(12):770-771
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.118456  PMID:24088637
We report the case of a 12-year-old male who developed corneal arcus and multiple skin lesions with a 10-year history of xanthomas. The lesions appeared over his fingers, hands, elbows, knees, buttocks and feet. Laboratory studies showed a total serum cholesterol level of 752.1 mg/dL; a triglyceride level of 96.6 mg/dL; a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 661.3 mg/dL. Findings were consistent with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported from China.
  - 2,508 149
Susac's syndrome: First from India and youngest in the world
Gunjan Prakash, Shephali Jain, Mausam Gupta, Tirupat Nathi
December 2013, 61(12):772-773
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.118446  PMID:24088634
A two and half year old female was admitted at the emergency room suffering from gradually worsening headache followed by nausea. The child presented with reduced level of consciousness and bilateral hypoacusis. The patient was lethargic. Ophthalmic examination showed branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). This finding was crucial to the diagnosis of Susac's syndrome (SS), a rare autoimmune disease characterized by, endotheliopathy of retina, encephalic tissues and cochlea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also showed typical features. Thorough blood investigations did not reveal any other abnormality. Patient was treated with immunosuppressive to prevent her from developing severe sequelae of this disease. The child showed dramatic improvement in her systemic condition within 48 h of starting the treatment. This is the youngest ever and first case report from India.
  - 2,097 160
Changing trends in the prevalence of visual impairment, uncorrected refractive errors and use of spectacles in Mahbubnagar district in South India
Srinivas Marmamula, Jill E Keeffe, Saggam Narsaiah, Rohit C Khanna, Gullapalli N Rao
December 2013, 61(12):755-758
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121149  PMID:24212225
Background/Aim: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease Study (APEDS) was a conventional cross-sectional study conducted in four locations during 1996-2000. Ten years later, a Rapid Assessment of Refractive Errors (RARE) survey was conducted in one of the geographical regions. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI), uncorrected refractive error (URE), spectacles use obtained from both the surveys was compared. Settings and Design: Rural settings; cross-sectional studies. Materials and Methods: In both the surveys, distance visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a logMAR chart. Pinhole VA was assessed if presenting VA was <20/20 in APEDS and <20/40 in RARE. VI was defined as presenting VA <20/40 in the better eye. URE was defined as presenting VA <20/40 and improving to ≥20/40 with a pinhole. Statistical Analysis Used: Performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Chi square tests and t-test were used. Results and Conclusions: The results from a RARE survey with 3,095 subjects were compared with an APEDS dataset that had 1,232 subjects in the same age group of 15-49 years. The prevalence of VI has decreased from 9.5% (95% CI, 7.7-11.1) in APEDS to 2.7% (95% CI, 2.1-3.3) in RARE. Similarly, the prevalence of URE in the better eye decreased from 5.8% (95% CI, 4.5-7.1) to 2.3% (95% CI, 1.8-2.8). The usage of spectacles increased from 6.6% (95% CI, 5.2-8.0) to 9.7% (95% CI, 8.7-10.7). There is a decreasing trend in the prevalence of VI and URE in Mahbubnagar district in Andhra Pradesh over a decade.
  - 1,301 182
Advances in technology helps in early detection of vision disorders
Sundaram Natarajan
December 2013, 61(12):695-697
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124733  PMID:24413821
  - 822 3,747
Iris-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses: A must know for all anterior segment surgeons
Jacob Koshy, Satish Thomas, Gurvinder Kaur, SM Bhatti
December 2013, 61(12):774-775
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.118454  PMID:24413828
  - 1,414 192
Planned posterior assisted levitation in severe subluxated cataract: Surgical technique and clinical results
Krishnan Panakanti Tandava, Ravikoti Rajyalakshmi, Snehal N Radke, Nishant V Radke
December 2013, 61(12):774-774
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121140  PMID:24212217
  - 903 129
Enhanced visualization of acute macular neuroretinopathy by infrared imaging and spectral optical coherence tomography
Emin Özmert, Rengin Aslıhan Kurt, Figen Batıoğlu
December 2013, 61(12):776-777
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.118461  PMID:24088639
  - 919 79
Prevalence of amblyopia in children undergoing nasolacrimal duct irrigation and probing
Ozlen Rodop Ozgur, Isıl Bahar Sayman, Yesim Oral, Berkay Akmaz
December 2013, 61(12):698-700
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124737  PMID:24413822
Purpose: To investigate ambylopia and amblyopia risk factors of children who underwent nasolacrimal duct (NLD) irrigation and probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who had undergone NLD irrigation and probing for CNLDO at an age of 3 years or younger were reviewed, and 51 of the patients were recalled between October 1 and December 31, 2011 for a detailed ophthalmic examination to determinate amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors. Amblyopia was accepted as difference in visual acuity of two or more Snellen lines between the two eyes or visual acuity of 20/30 or worse in either eye. Results: The median age of the 51 patients to whom NLD irrigation and probing were attempted for CNLDO was 23 months. CNLDO affected a total of 70 eyes. All patients were reviewed for best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, and strabismus at a median age of 70.5 months (range 31-95 months). Amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors were identified in 14 patients (27.5%). One child (7.15%) had only strabismus, six children (42.8%) had only amblyogenic refractive errors, two (14.3%) had a combination of two, one child (7.15%) had a family history for amblyopia, but four children (28.6%) had no amblyopia risk factors but had amblyopia. Conclusion: Amblyogenic risk factors are found higher in patients with CNLDO and patients undergoing NLD irrigation and probing in comparison to normal population. Therefore, we recommend these children to routinely undergo cycloplegic refractions and full ophthalmic examinations.
  - 1,411 1,999
Outcomes in patients with esotropic duane retraction syndrome and a partially accommodative component
Ramesh Kekunnaya, Federico G Velez, Stacy L Pineles
December 2013, 61(12):701-704
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124744  PMID:24413823
Background: The management of Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is challenging and may become more difficult if an associated accommodative component due to high hyperopia is present. The purpose of this study is to review clinical features and outcomes in patients with partially accommodative esotropia and DRS. Setting and Design: Retrospective, non-comparative case series. Materials and Methods: Six cases of DRS with high hyperopia were reviewed. Results: Of the patients studied, the mean age of presentation was 1.3 years (range: 0.5-2.5 years). The mean amount of hyperopia was + 5D (range: 3.50-8.50) in both eyes. The mean follow up period was 7 years (range: 4 months-12 years). Five cases were unilateral while one was bilateral. Four cases underwent vertical rectus muscle transposition (VRT) and one had medial rectus recession prior to presentation; all were given optical correction. Two (50%) of the four patients who underwent vertical rectus transposition cases developed consecutive exotropia, one of whom did not have spectacles prescribed pre-operatively. All other cases (four) had minimal residual esotropia and face turn at the last follow-up with spectacle correction. Conclusion: Patients with Duane syndrome can have an accommodative component to their esotropia, which is crucial to detect and correct prior to surgery to decrease the risk of long-term over-correction. Occasionally, torticollis in Duane syndrome can be satisfactorily corrected with spectacles alone.
  - 1,615 365
The grave necessity to make eye bank specular microscopy mandatory in all eye banks in the subcontinent to improve utilization of scarce donor corneas
Jagruti N Jadeja, Bharati D Patel, Swapna S Shanbhag
December 2013, 61(12):711-717
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.124754  PMID:24413825
Context: Donor tissue scarcity, Eye Bank Specular Microscopy as yet not made mandatory and tissue utilization often based on clinical judgment only. Aims: Prospectively analyze alteration in clinical grading of donor corneas and hence utilization, based on Eye Bank Specular Microscopy (EBSM) and to infer if EBSM should be mandatory in all eye banks. Materials and Methods: 200 consecutive otherwise 'suitable for surgery' donor eyes were graded clinically. On quantitative and qualitative analysis of endothelial cells by EBSM, final grading was adjusted. Impact on subsequent utilization for various surgeries was analyzed with regard to Age of Donor, Death to Enucleation Time, Death to Preservation Time and Lens Status of Donor Eye. Results: 76 eyes (38%) (P < 0.05) had significant change in grading. 12/59 (20.30%) tissues from donors <=40 years showed Cell Density (CD) between 1801-2500. 19/76 (25%) tissues from donor >60 years showed CD >= 2500. From donor >=81 years, 2/13 (15.3%) eyes showed CD between 2501-3000 and 1 (7.6%) eye showed CD > 3000. Owing to better grading after EBSM, 13/14 (92.85%) tissues with DTET >6 hours and 5/5 (100%) tissues with DTPT > 16 hours were transplanted. Out of 45 (22.5%) pseudo-phakic tissues, 21 (46.67%) tissues were used for Therapeutic/Tectonic Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP) while 24 (53.33%) tissues were used for Optical PKP. Conclusions: EBSM significantly alters final grading of tissues and its subsequent utilization. Acquiring huge importance in areas where adequate supply of corneas is lacking, EBSM becomes an indispensable tool for optimizing availability of qualified tissues for surgery. EBSM should be made a mandatory analysis.
  - 1,717 204
A novel technique to recanalize the nasolacrimal duct with endodiathermy bipolar probe
Siddharth Agrawal, Sanjiv K Gupta, Vinita Singh, Saurabh Agrawal
December 2013, 61(12):718-721
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121180  PMID:24212227
Aims: To evaluate a new approach for recanalization (RC) of nasolacrimal duct obstruction in the treatment of the symptomatic nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Materials and Methods: A prospective, interventional, comparative study in 302 eyes of 209 patients of symptomatic nontraumatic NLDO. Eyes with previous failed surgery were excluded. One hundred and fifty-one eyes underwent RC with 20 G endodiathermy bipolar probe connected to a 7 W diathermy followed by bicanalicular intubation under direct visualization. One hundred and fifty-one eyes underwent standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Follow-up was for 24 months and evaluation was done on basis of change in symptoms and lacrimal syringing. Data was analyzed by Chi-square test and unpaired t-test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Success defined as an asymptomatic patient or freely patent syringing was 92.7% (140 eyes) in RC group and 83.44% (126 eyes) in DCR group. Success was significantly more (P ≤ 0.01) in RC than DCR group. Surgical time was significantly less in RC than DCR (P ≤ 0.001). In RC group, RC could not be performed in three eyes and had to be later taken up for DCR. Intubation after RC was not achieved in four eyes; however these eyes had a patent pathway till 24 months. Twenty-two eyes had a premature extrusion of the tube; but the success rate in these (20 eyes) was comparable to the others within the group (P > 0.05). Two eyes in RC and one in DCR group had complications. Conclusions: RC with 20 G endodiathermy bipolar probe is a quick, simple, and effective alternative to standard external DCR.
  - 1,883 267
Impact of application of bio-amniotic membrane immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution in trabeculectomy on rabbit retina
Chenming Zhang, Xinyi Wu, Wei Liu, Jianrong Wang, Bailin Guo, Yan Sun, Yuguang Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yu Wang, Jun Zhao
December 2013, 61(12):734-738
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121151  PMID:24212226
Background : To observe the impact of application of bio-amniotic membrane immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution in trabeculectomy on the retina in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods : Healthy white New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups with 20 in each group. Bio-amniotic membranes of 4 × 5 mm immersed in either physiological saline/water for 10 min, or 25 mg/mL 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively, were applied on rabbit eyes during trabeculectomy. At 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of postoperation, five rabbits from each group were examined with electroretinogram (ERG). After being examined for eye pressure and bleb morphology, rabbits were sacrificed by air embolism and their retinas were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, 5-fluorouracil amount in bio-amniotic membranes was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Each bio-amniotic membrane could absorb 59.004 μg and 75.828 μg 5-fluorouracil after being immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Application of these bio-amniotic membranes in trabeculectomy could promote the formation of well-functioning bleb and maintain intraocular pressure, although it had no effect on retina structures as examined with ERG and TEM. Conclusion: Application of 5-FU soaked bio-amniotic membrane in rabbit eye trabeculectomy is effective and safe.
  - 1,380 114
Clinical features and etiology of retinal vasculitis in Northern Thailand
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Aniki Rothova, Paradee Kunavisarut, Kessara Pathanapitoon
December 2013, 61(12):739-742
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.120216  PMID:24178403
Purpose: To report on the clinical features and etiology of patients with retinal vasculitis (RV). Materials and Methods: We reviewed medical records of 47 patients (75 affected eyes) diagnosed with RV. Clinical presentations, ocular complications, associated systemic diseases, and treatment regimens were registered. Results: Etiology of RV included infectious causes in 10/47, (21%) while an association with systemic and/or ocular non-infectious disorders was noted in 22/47 (47%). Eales' disease and Behcet's disease represented the most common clinical entities in non-infectious group while tuberculosis-associated RV was diagnosed in 6/10 (60%) among those with infectious disorders. RV was bilateral in 28/47 (60%) patients. Retinal veins were most commonly affected (72%, 34/47). Involvement of arteries was present in 12/47 (25%) and was associated with viral infections and Behcet's disease. Ocular complications developed in 60/75 (80%) eyes. The most common complications were elevated intraocular pressure and/or glaucoma (33/75, 44%). Retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and cystoid macular edema developed in similar percentages (15%). Conclusions: RV in Thailand manifested mostly in male patients, was typically bilateral and involved mostly veins. Involvement of arteries was observed in patients with viral infections and Behcet's disease. Tuberculosis was the most common infectious cause.
  - 1,774 216
Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma
Gopal Lingam
December 2013, 61(12):743-748
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.122910  PMID:24413826
Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV) pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous). Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous). Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion.
  - 4,224 446
A new surgical technique using steel suture for trans-scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses
Jagat Ram, Nishant Gupta, Manish Chaudhary, Neelam Verma
December 2013, 61(12):749-751
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111217  PMID:23619504
Background: A new emerging complication of trans-scleral fixation of posterior chamber (PC) intraocular lens (IOL) with polypropylene suture is high rates of spontaneous dislocation of the IOL due to disintegration or breakage of suture. Materials: We report a new surgical technique of trans-scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF PCIOL) with steel suture to eliminate the complication of dislocation of IOL fixed with polypropylene suture in one adult and a child. Results: We successfully achieved stable fixation and good centration of IOL after SF PCIOL with steel suture in these patient having inadequate posterior capsular support. Both eyes achieved best corrected visual acuity 20/40 at 18 months follow-up. Conclusions: Steel suture is a viable option for trans-scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens.
  - 1,642 221
Isolated complete bitemporal hemianopia in traumatic chiasmal syndrome
Dai Woo Kim, Ungsoo Samuel Kim
December 2013, 61(12):759-760
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121139  PMID:24212216
A 29-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of lateral blindness in the left eye at 4 months after an accidental fall. His best corrected visual acuity was 0.7 in the left eye and 1.0 in the right eye. Visual field test showed a complete bitemporal hemianopic defect without any neurologic symptoms. An orbital computed tomography scan with non-enhancement conducted at the time of the visit showed multiple frontal skull fractures and cerebromalacia a small fracture in the sphenoidal boneboth frontal lobes. No radiological abnormalities of the visual pathway were detected. Optical coherence showed reduced thickness in the retinal nerve fiber layer, primarily in the superior and inferior part of the left eye. To our knowledge, a complete bitemporal hemianopia without neurological deficits is extremely rare in traumatic chiasmal syndrome.
  - 2,468 150
Coexistent miliary tuberculosis of choroid and tubercular panuveitis: A report
Sabyasachi Sengupta, Vijay Pratap Singh Tomar, Jyotirmay Biswas
December 2013, 61(12):761-762
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.117788  PMID:24008783
  - 958 140