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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| February  | Volume 62 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 11, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome
Pradeep Sharma, Ruchi Tomer, Vimla Menon, Rohit Saxena, Anudeepa Sharma
February 2014, 62(2):204-208
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121145  PMID:24618490
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35) exotropia for group A and −21.3 Δ (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to −8) for group A and 8 Δ (−2 to −20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.
  3 2,262 247
Complications and management in Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty: Analysis of consecutive 430 cases
Samar K Basak, Soham Basak
February 2014, 62(2):209-218
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116484  PMID:24008797
Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and 'Taco' insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months). Results: 13 (3.0%) eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7%) had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6%) eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9%) eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8%) eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3%) eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3%) eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2%) cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2%) and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.
  2 4,734 389
Corneal changes following collagen cross linking and simultaneous topography guided photoablation with collagen cross linking for keratoconus
Prema Padmanabhan, Aishwaryah Radhakrishnan, Abinaya Priya Venkataraman, Nidhi Gupta, Bhaskar Srinivasan
February 2014, 62(2):229-235
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111209  PMID:23619500
Purpose: To compare the outcome of Collagen cross-linking (CXL) with that following topography-guided customized ablation treatment (T-CAT) with simultaneous CXL in eyes with progressive keratoconus. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized single centre study of 66 eyes with progressive keratoconus. Of these, 40 eyes underwent CXL and 26 eyes underwent T-CAT + CXL. The refractive, topographic, tomographic and aberrometric changes measured at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively were compared between both groups. Results: After a mean follow-up of 7.7 ± 1.3 months, the mean retinoscopic cylinder decreased by 1.02 ± 3.16 D in the CXL group ( P = 0.1) and 2.87 ± 3.22 D in the T-CAT + CXL group ( P = 0.04). The Best corrected visual acuity increased by 2 lines or more in 10% of eyes in the CXL group and in 23.3% of eyes in the T-CAT + CXL group. The mean steepest-K reduced by 0.40 ± 3.71 D ( P = 0.77) in the CXL group and by 2.91 ± 2.01D ( P = 0.03) in the T-CAT + CXL group. The sag factor and surface asymmetry index showed no significant change in the CXL group but reduced by 3.59 ± 5.94 D ( P = 0.01) and 0.72 ± 1.18 ( P = 0.02) respectively in the T-CAT + CXL group. There was a significant increase in the highest posterior corneal elevation in both groups (9.57 ± 14.93 μ in the CXL group and 7.85 ± 9.25 μ in the T-CAT + CXL group, P ≤ 0.001 for both). There was significantly greater reduction of mean coma ( P < 0.001) and mean higher-order aberrations ( P = 0.01) following T-CAT + CXL compared to CXL. Conclusions: CAT + CXL is an effective approach to confer biomechanical stability and to improve the corneal contour in eyes with keratoconus and results in better refractive, topographic and aberrometric outcomes than CXL alone.
  2 3,910 418
Bacterial and fungal keratitis in Upper Egypt: In vitro screening of enzymes, toxins and antifungal activity
Abdullah A Gharamah, Ahmed M Moharram, Mady A Ismail, Ashraf K AL-Hussaini
February 2014, 62(2):196-203
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116463  PMID:24008795
Purpose: This work was conducted to study the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates from keratitis cases in Upper Egypt to produce enzymes, toxins, and to test the isolated fungal species sensitivity to some therapeutic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients clinically diagnosed to have microbial keratitis were investigated. From these cases, 37 bacterial isolates and 25 fungal isolates were screened for their ability to produce extra-cellular enzymes in solid media. In addition, the ability of fungal isolates to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to 4 antifungal agents were tested. Results: Protease, lipase, hemolysins, urease, phosphatase, and catalase were detected respectively in 48.65%, 37.84%, 59.46%, 43.24%, 67.57%, and 100% out of 37 bacterial isolates tested. Out of 25 fungal isolates tested during the present study, 80% were positive for protease, 84% for lipase and urease, 28% for blood hemolysis, and 100% for phosphatase and catalase enzymes. Thirteen fungal isolates were able to produce detectable amounts of 7 mycotoxins in culture medium (aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2), sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, diacetoxyscirpenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and trichodermin). Among the antifungal agents tested in this study, terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. Conclusion: In conclusion, the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and toxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues, which, in turn, lead to vision loss.
  2 1,545 194
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia
Mihir Kothari, Kavita Rao, Samita Moolani
February 2014, 62(2):246-248
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128635  PMID:24618492
Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS), after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years) and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.
  1 1,009 123
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Long term outcomes of bilateral congenital and developmental cataracts operated in Maharashtra, India. Miraj pediatric cataract study III
Parikshit M Gogate, Mohini Sahasrabudhe, Mitali Shah, Shailbala Patil, Anil N Kulkarni, Rupal Trivedi, Divya Bhasa, Rahin Tamboli, Rekha Mane
February 2014, 62(2):186-195
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128630  PMID:24618489
Aim : To study long term outcome of bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery. Subjects: 258 pediatric cataract operated eyes of 129 children. Materials and Methods: Children who underwent pediatric cataract surgery in 2004-8 were traced and examined prospectively in 2010-11. Demographic and clinical factors were noted from retrospective chart readings. All children underwent visual acuity estimation and comprehensive ocular examination in a standardized manner. L. V. Prasad Child Vision Function scores (LVP-CVF) were noted for before and after surgery. Statistics: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 16 including multi-variate analysis. Results: Children aged 9.1 years (std dev 4.6, range 7 weeks-15 years) at the time of surgery. 74/129 (57.4%) were boys. The average duration of follow-up was 4.4 years (stddev 1.6, range 3-8 years). 177 (68.6%) eyes had vision <3/60 before surgery, while 109 (42.2%) had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >6/18 and 157 (60.9%) had BCVA >6/60 3-8 years after surgery. 48 (37.2%) had binocular stereoacuity <480 sec of arc by TNO test. Visual outcome depended on type of cataract (P = 0.004), type of cataract surgery (P < 0.001), type of intra-ocular lens (P = 0.05), age at surgery (P = 0.004), absence of post-operative uveitis (P = 0.01) and pre-operative vision (P < 0.001), but did not depend on delay (0.612) between diagnosis and surgery. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the 20 questions of the LVP-CVF scale (P < 0.001). Conclusion : Pediatric cataract surgery improved the children's visual acuity, stereo acuity and vision function. Developmental cataract, use of phacoemulsification, older children and those with better pre-operative vision had betterlong-termoutcomes.
  1 1,816 310
Role of echography in diagnostic dilemma in choroidal masses
Kopal N Mithal, Hansa H Thakkar, Mudit A Tyagi, Rekha M Bharwada, Puja O Billore
February 2014, 62(2):167-170
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128626  PMID:24618487
Purpose: To evaluate the role of echography in diagnosis and management of a diverse array of choroidal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two cases of clinically suspected choroidal masses were prospectively analyzed with B-scan (10 Hz), A-scan, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) (50 Hz) after a meticulous history and ocular examination. Ancillary investigations and systemic evaluation were also done. Results: Based on clinical suspicion, acoustic features, response to treatment, and other ancillary tests combined together, the various masses were differentiated. The cases included in the study were as follows: n = 10 malignant melanomas, n = 16 metastasis and infiltrations, n = 9 hemangioma, n = 7 tuberculoma, n = 8 nonspecific inflammatory masses, n = 2 disciform plaques, n = 4 macular cysts or retinoschisis, n = 2 Coat's disease, n = 1 melanocytoma, and n = 2 osteomas. Ultrasonography (USG) alone could identify n = 51 lesions, while UBM in combination with USG was needed in remaining 11 masses. Conclusion: Standardized echography is an important adjunct in the diagnosis and management of eyes with intraocular masses. A better understanding of the clinicopathological and echographic picture of the diverse lesions can help in detection, differentiation, diagnosis, proposing a therapeutic approach, and also monitoring response to treatment. Echography is essential to evaluate tumors for extrascleral and anterior segment extension.
  1 1,730 235
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Clinical features and management of ocular lesions after stings by hymenopteran insects
KS Siddharthan, Anita Raghavan, R Revathi
February 2014, 62(2):248-251
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128637  PMID:24618493
We describe the ocular alterations and the management after stings from Hymenopteran insects. In all the five patients, the insect was identified as bee. The patients presented with significant corneal edema, which resolved dramatically in three of them after removal of stingers. Among the other two one went for permanent corneal decompensation and the other developed Intumuscent cataract with increased intraocular pressure. Although a rare occurrence, ocular trauma caused by Hymenopteran insects has a potential to cause severe ocular damage in humans. A high level of clinical suspicion and immediate removal of the stingers along with administration of high doses of topical and systemic steroids is a must to prevent chances of permanent corneal damage and intraocular complications.
  - 1,454 164
Challenges in pediatric endothelial keratoplasty
Vikas Mittal, Ruchi Mittal
February 2014, 62(2):251-254
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128638  PMID:24618494
We performed endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in three eyes of two siblings (2.5 years, male and 3.5 years, female) with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and report the intraoperative and postoperative difficulties. Repeated iris prolapse, apprehension of crystalline lens touch due to positive vitreous pressure, and need for frequent air injections to attach the graft were intraoperative challenges in all three eyes. These were addressed by use of Sheet's glide instead of Busin's glide during graft insertion and suturing of main and side ports before air injection. One eye had graft dislocation on second postoperative day due to eye rubbing by the child. Graft was repositioned with air and a venting incision was created. Postoperative examination required repeated general anesthesia. Corneal edema resolved completely in all three eyes. Present case series highlights the possible intraoperative and postoperative challenges and their solutions in pediatric EK for CHED.
  - 1,355 187
Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight
Gaurav Sanghi, Mangat R Dogra, Deeksha Katoch, Amod Gupta
February 2014, 62(2):254-257
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128639  PMID:24618495
In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week) and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5%) had zone 1 and 19 (65.5%) had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2%) eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8%) eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5%) eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9%) eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥1500 g birth weight) premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor.
  - 3,598 364
COMMUNITY EYE CARE
Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia
Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret
February 2014, 62(2):236-239
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.99974  PMID:23571246
Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK). Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31%) participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G), Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4%) were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
  - 2,110 218
Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India
Shailbala Patil, Parikshit Gogate, Siddharth Vora, Sachin Ainapure, Ramkrishna N Hingane, Anil N Kulkarni, BR Shammanna
February 2014, 62(2):240-245
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128633  PMID:24618491
Background : Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim : To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects : Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ≥ 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion : Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness.
  - 3,933 393
EDITORIAL
The pediatric eye view
Sundaram Natarajan
February 2014, 62(2):101-102
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128583  PMID:24618481
  - 920 244
ERRATUM
Erratum

February 2014, 62(2):115-115
  - 280 70
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Quality of spectacles in school going children in urban India
Mihir Kothari, Krishna B Darji, Prashant Bhagat
February 2014, 62(2):258-259
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128640  PMID:24618496
  - 912 164
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion
Jost B Jonas, Sohan S Hayreh, Yong Tao
February 2014, 62(2):219-223
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111216  PMID:23619503
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49) and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60). The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91), with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81), and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89). Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.
  - 1,123 110
Outcomes of trabeculectomy in juvenile open angle glaucoma
Daizy Pathania, Sirisha Senthil, Harsha L Rao, Anil K Mandal, Chandra Sekhar Garudadari
February 2014, 62(2):224-228
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.101074  PMID:23571250
Purpose: This study was aimed at reporting the outcomes of trabeculectomy in primary juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG). Design: This study was a retrospective noncomparative case series. Materials and Methods: We included 60 eyes of 41 JOAG patients who underwent primary trabeculectomy without mitomycin-C (MMC) between 1995 and 2007. The primary outcome was success, defined as complete, if intraocular pressure (IOP) was >5 and ≤21 mmHg without medications or qualified if IOP was >5 and ≤21 mmHg with or without antiglaucoma medications. Secondary outcome measures were mean and percentage IOP reduction, complications, and risk factors for the failure of trabeculectomy. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age at presentation was 24.1 ± 6.8 years (range, 12-35). Mean follow-up was 67 ± 41 months (range, 12-156). At 1 year, the probability of complete success was 92% (n = 56, 95% CI: 81-96%), at 3 years it was 89% (n = 47, 95% CI: 78-95%), and at the end of 5 years, it was 80% (n = 34, 95% CI: 65-89%). The probability of qualified success was 100% (n = 60) at 1 year, 98% (n = 51, 95% CI: 87-100%) at 3 years, and 96% (n = 36, 95% CI: 84-99%) at the end of 5 years. The mean IOP reduced from 35 ± 10 to 13 ± 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.001) after trabeculectomy. There was no serious postoperative complication. Young age was the only significant risk factor associated with the failure (odds ratio = 0.89, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Primary trabeculectomy without MMC has good success rates in JOAG.
  - 3,472 303
The effect of multimedia interventions on the informed consent process for cataract surgery in rural South India
Abraar Karan, Prashanth Somasundaram, Haben Michael, Aryan Shayegani, Hylton Mayer
February 2014, 62(2):171-175
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116488  PMID:24008787
Context: The provision of ocular surgical interventions for poorer, less educated populations is increasing as a result of increased globalization and outreach. However, these populations still have trouble understanding surgical concepts and are not always fully informed decision makers. Aims: We aimed to test the effect that a multimedia addition to a traditional verbal informed consent would have on patient comprehension of relatively difficult cataract surgical concepts. Settings and Design: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with relatively uneducated patients reporting to a private surgical hospital in Chennai, India. 47 patients were placed into the intervention group and 50 patients were placed into the control group. Materials and Methods: The intervention group was presented with a scripted verbal informed consent as well as a 3-fold pamphlet and a presentation with a 3-dimensional model of the eye. The control group was only presented with a scripted verbal informed consent. The two groups were tested using an 11 item "True/False/I don't know" quiz directly before the informed consent, directly after the informed consent, and one-day postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used: Scores on the quiz were compared across groups and time-points using paired t-tests. Results: Patients in the both groups showed a significant improvement in scores between pre- and post-informed consent quizzes (P value on the order of 10 -6 ) and the improvement in scores was significantly greater in the intervention group than the control group (P value on the order of 10 -16 ). There was no significant difference observed in either group with regards to the change in scores between post-informed consent and post-operative quizzes. Conclusion: Multimedia aids in addition to a standard informed consent process are effective in improving patient comprehension even for patients with low literacy and limited knowledge of surgical interventions.
  - 2,040 183
Modified silicone sling assisted temporalis muscle transfer in the management of lagophthalmos
Ramesh C Gupta, Raj NS Kushwaha, Ina Budhiraja, Priyanka Gupta, Parul Singh
February 2014, 62(2):176-179
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128629  PMID:24618488
Aim : To evaluate the efficacy of modified temporalis muscle transfer (TMT) by silicone sling for the management of paralytic lagophthalmos. Settings and Design: Prospective interventional study. Materials and Methods : Ten patients of lagophthalmos due to facial palsy underwent modified TMT using silicone sling. The patients were followed-up for a period of 3 months. Palpebral aperture in primary gaze and during eye closure were assessed both pre- and postoperatively along with problems associated with lagophthalmos like exposure keratopathy and lacrimation. Statistical Analysis : Paired t-test was applied to measure the statistical outcome. Results : Eight patients achieved full correction of lagophthalmos with no lid gap on closing the eye. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) lid gap on eye closure was 7.7 (0.86) mm preoperatively, 0.5 (0.47) mm at 1 st postoperative day, and 0.7 (0.75) mm at 3 rd month. There was a reduction in mean lid gap on eye closure of 7 mm at 3 months (P < 0.0001) which is highly significant. The mean (SD) vertical interpalpebral distance during primary gaze was 12.05 (1.12) mm preoperatively, 10 (0.94) mm at 1 st postoperative day, and 10.35 (1.08) mm at 3 rd month. There was a reduction in mean vertical inter palpebral distance of 1.7 mm at 3 months (P = 0.001) which is significant. Exposure keratitis decreased in five out of six patients at 3 months. Conclusion : Modified TMT by silicone sling is a useful procedure with lesser morbidity and good outcomes for the treatment of paralytic lagophthalmos due to long standing facial palsy.
  - 1,482 227
Influence of multiple sclerosis, age and degree of disability, in the position of the contrast sensitivity curve peak
AF Nunes, P M L Monteiro, M Vaz Pato
February 2014, 62(2):180-185
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116485  PMID:24008796
Context: Contrast sensitivity (CS) function is one of the most important tests available for evaluating visual impairment. Multiple sclerosis (MS) can produce highly selective losses in visual function and psychophysical studies have demonstrated CS deficits for some spatial frequencies. Aims: This work studies the differences in CS between a group of controls and a group of MS patients, focusing on the location of the maximum sensitivity peak, shape of the curve, and determination of the most affected spatial frequencies. Materials and Methods: Using a sinusoidal stimulus the authors assessed CS function in 28 subjects with definitive relapsing remitting MS, and in 50 controls with acuities of 20/25 or better. The peaks of the CS curves were studied by fitting third degree polynomials to individual sets of data. Results: Compared with the control group, the CS function curve for MS subjects showed more deficits in extreme points (low- and high-spatial frequencies). Our results display significant CS losses, at the high-frequencies band level, in the beginning of the disease. When the disease progresses and the disabilities appear, there are greater losses at the low-frequencies band level. In average, the CS curve peaks for the MS group were shifted in relation to the control group. Conclusions: CS losses in the MS group suggest an association with ageing and disability level in the expanded disability status scale. The position of the CS function peak is influenced by MS, age, and degree of disability.
  - 1,388 125
Impact of low vision care on reading performance in children with multiple disabilities and visual impairment
Krishna Kumar Ramani, Shailaja Reddy Police, Namita Jacob
February 2014, 62(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.111207  PMID:23619499
Background: Lack of evidence in literature to show low vision care enhances the reading performance in children with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment (MDVI). Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Low Vision Care intervention on the reading performance of children with MDVI. Materials and Methods: Three subjects who were diagnosed to have cerebral palsy and visual impairment, studying in a special school were recruited for the study. All of them underwent detailed eye examination and low vision care evaluation at a tertiary eye care hospital. A single subject multiple baseline (study) design was adopted and the study period was 16 weeks. The reading performance (reading speed, reading accuracy, reading fluency) was evaluated during the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The median of all the reading parameters for each week was noted. The trend of the reading performance was graphically represented in both the phases. Results: Reading speed increased by 37 Word per minute, 37 Letters per minute and 5 letters per minute for the subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively after the intervention. Reading accuracy was 84%, 91% and 86.4% at the end of the baseline period and 98.7%, 98.4% and 99% at the end of 16 weeks for subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Average reading fluency score was 8.3, 7.1 and 5.5 in the baseline period and 10.2, 10.2 and 8.7 in the intervention period. Conclusion: This study shows evidence of noticeable improvement in reading performance of children with MDVI using a novel study design.
  - 2,251 279
Supraciliary contraction segments: A new method for the treatment of presbyopia
Zeki Tunc, Firat Helvacioglu, Yesim Ercalik, George Baikoff, Sadik Sencan
February 2014, 62(2):116-123
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.97554  PMID:23552349
Background and Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of supraciliary contraction segment implants (SCSIs) for the treatment of presbyopia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, non-comparative study comprised 10 eyes from five phakic and emmetropic 50-year-old subjects. Preoperative and postoperative near and distance visual acuity, topography, axial length, pachymetry, and intraocular pressure were analyzed. A 5.32-mm long and 0.85-mm thick piece of polymethyl methacrylat (PMMA) and a 5.32-mm long or 0.55-mm thick dried hydrophilic SCSI were placed within the scleral tunnels that were created 2 mm away from the limbus. The 500-550 ΅m deep tunnels were parallel to the limbus and four segments were implanted per eye. The SCSIs were entirely placed at a depth of approximately 85% in the sclera. Results: The uncorrected distance visual acuity was similar before and after the surgery (0.00 logMAR). The monocular mean uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) was 0.5 ± 0.0 before surgery, 0.12 ± 0.10 logMAR at 1 month after surgery, 0.16 ± 0.18 logMAR at 3 months after surgery, and 0.29 ± 0.16 logMAR at the 18-month follow-up. Conclusion: Despite obtaining satisfactory results at 6 months after the surgery, a follow-up of the SCSI intervention at 18 months revealed a regression of the early post-op UNVA improvement caused by a progressive outward movement of SCSIs.
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Effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia around visual maturity: A randomized controlled trial
Prachee Vasant Pawar, Sachin S Mumbare, Mrunal Suresh Patil, Seema Ramakrishnan
February 2014, 62(2):124-129
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128586  PMID:24618483
Aim: To study the effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia in the age group of 4-13 years. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial, which included patients who were randomly divided into two groups. Both the groups received patching therapy till plateau was achieved in phase 1 of the study. Then in phase 2, group I received citicoline plus patching and group II continued to receive only patching. Outcome Measures: Outcome was measured by the visual acuity in logMAR every month in phase 1 till plateau was achieved and then for 12 months in phase 2. Results: No significant difference was found in the mean visual acuities in these two groups in phase 1 till plateau was reached. In phase 2, for the initial four months, there was no significant difference in the visual acuities in these two groups, at the respective intervals. However, five months onward, up to 12 months, there was a significant difference in the visual acuities in these groups.The result was the same in younger patients (< seven years of age) as well as in older patients (> seven years of age). In phase 2, the mean proportional improvement in group I was significantly more than that in group II, at two months and onward, at the respective intervals. Conclusion: The improvement in visual acuity with citicoline plus patching was significantly more than that with patching alone, in one year of treatment.
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Successful transportation of human corneal endothelial tissues without cool preservation in varying Indian tropical climatic conditions and in vitro cell expansion using a novel polymer
Srinivas K Rao, John Sudhakar, Periyasamy Parikumar, Sundaram Natarajan, Aditya Insaan, Hiroshi Yoshioka, Yuichi Mori, Shigeo Tsukahara, Subramani Baskar, Sadananda Rao Manjunath, Rajappa Senthilkumar, Paramasivam Thamaraikannan, Thangavelu Srinivasan, Senthilkumar Preethy, Samuel J K Abraham
February 2014, 62(2):130-135
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116457  PMID:24008800
Background: Though the transplantation of human corneal endothelial tissue (CET) separated from cadaver cornea is in practice, its transportation has not been reported. We report the successful transportation of CET in varying Indian climatic conditions without cool preservation and the in vitro expansion of Human Corneal Endothelial Precursor Cells (HCEPCs) using a novel Thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP). Materials and Methods: CET from cadaver corneas (n = 67), unsuitable for transplantation, were used. In phase I, CET was transported in Basal Culture Medium (Group I) and TGP (Group II) and in Phase II, in TGP cocktail alone, from three hospitals 250-2500 km away, to a central laboratory. The transportation time ranged from 6 h to 72 h and the outdoor temperature between 20°C and 41°C. On arrival, CET were processed, cells were expanded upto 30 days in basal culture medium (Group A) and TGP scaffold (Group B). Cell viability and morphology were documented and Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) characterization undertaken. Results: In Phase I, TGP yielded more viable cells (0.11 × 10 6 cells) than Group I (0.04 × 10 6 cells). In Phase II, the average cell count was 5.44 × 10 4 cells. During expansion, viability of HCEPCs spheres in TGP was maintained for a longer duration. The cells from both the groups tested positive for B-3 tubulin and negative for cytokeratins K3 and K12, thereby proving them to be HCEPCs. Conclusion: TGP preserves the CET during transportation without cool preservation and supports in vitro expansion, with a higher yield of HCEPCs, similar to that reported in clinical studies.
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Management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis
Anand Vinekar, Mangat R Dogra, Kavitha Avadhani, Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
February 2014, 62(2):136-140
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128588  PMID:24618484
Aim: To report the management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis (POFE) after failed pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and antifungal therapy. Settings and Design: Tertiary Care Referral Centre in North India. Retrospective, single institution, interventional case-series. Materials and Methods: Six patients with microbiologically proven recurrent post-operative fungal endophthalmitis refractory to conventional management were included. The final recurrence was managed with intraocular lens (IOL) explantation and re-PPV. Main outcome measures included preserved globe anatomy, visual acuity and retinal status. 'Anatomical success' was defined as preserved anatomy of the globe, and absence of signs of inflammation. 'Functional success' was defined as an attached retina and a best corrected visual acuity of better than 20/400. Results: Of the six cases of POFE, five were culture positive [Aspergillus flavus (1), Aspergillus fumigatus (2), Candida albicans (1) and Candida glabrata (1)] and one was smear positive for yeast. All recurred (mean recurrences, 4) despite a mean of 2.17 PPVs and intravitreal amphotericin B. No recurrences were observed after IOL explantation with re - PPV (median follow-up, 37 months). Pre-study defined criteria for successful 'anatomical' and 'functional' outcomes were achieved in 83.3% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: This report highlights the effective role of combined IOL explantation with PPV in managing recurrent POFE.
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Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools
Nurul Farhana Abu Bakar, Ai-Hong Chen
February 2014, 62(2):141-144
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116481  PMID:24008790
Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. 'Unable to test' was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes ( P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or "matching" approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities.
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Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Ganesh Kuri, Jayanta Kr Das, Debleena Dey
February 2014, 62(2):145-153
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128593  PMID:24618485
Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG) for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG). Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna's classification) were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001) and motility (P = 0.004) between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.
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Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens
Raghvendra Kurmi, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Divya Bansal, Abhishek Agnihotri, Nazneen Dubey
February 2014, 62(2):154-157
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116482  PMID:24008789
Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera) Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control) lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde), soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV) showed significant (* P < 0.05) reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract.
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Brachytherapy of intra ocular tumors using 'BARC I-125 Ocu-Prosta seeds': An Indian experience
Vikas Khetan, Lingam Gopal, Mahesh P Shanmugam, Aditi Gupta, Tarun Sharma, Pramod Bhende, Siva Muthukumar, R Subramaniam, Thayalan Kuppuswamy, SK Saxena, Ashutosh Dash
February 2014, 62(2):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.128618  PMID:24618486
Aim: To report our experience of brachytherapy using 'BARC I-125 Ocu-Prosta seeds' for the management of intraocular tumors with regard to tumor control, globe preservation visual outcome, and patient survival at Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India between September 2003 and May 2011. Materials and Methods: We reviewed records of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent ophthalmic brachytherapy between September 2003 and May 2011. Twenty-one cases had choroidal melanoma, nine had childhood retinoblastoma, two had adult-onset retinoblastoma, and there were one case each of vasoproliferative tumor, retinal angioma, and ciliary body melanoma. Brachytherapy was administered using a 15- or 20-mm gold plaque with or without a notch. Brachytherapy was the primary treatment modality in all tumors other than retinoblastoma, wherein brachytherapy was done post chemoreduction for residual tumor. Results: For choroidal melanomas, the mean radiation dose was 68.69 ± 15.07 (range, 47.72-94.2) Gy. The eye salvage rate was 13/20 (65%) and tumor control rate was 16/20 (80%) at an average follow-up of 24.43 ± 24.75 (range, 1.5-87.98) months. For retinoblastoma, the mean dose was 45.85 ± 3.90 (range, 39.51-50.92) Gy. The eye salvage rate and tumor control rate was 5/6 (83.3%) at an average follow-up of 38.36 ± 31.33 (range, 4.14-97.78) months. All eyes with retinoblastoma needed additional focal therapy for tumor control and eye salvage. Conclusion: The results of this retrospective study confirms that the use of 'BARC I-125 Ocu-Prosta seeds' in episcleral plaques to treat intraocular tumors offers a viable option for the management of intraocular cancers.
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Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma
Raj V Azad, Parijat Chandra, Anuradha Chandra, Aparna Gupta, Viney Gupta, Ramanjit Sihota
February 2014, 62(2):163-166
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.116487  PMID:24008788
Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal
Varun B Gupta, Manjusha Rajagopala, Basavaiah Ravishankar
February 2014, 62(2):103-110
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121141  PMID:24618482
Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract.
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