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   2014| July  | Volume 62 | Issue 7  
    Online since August 13, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography morphology in optic disc pit associated maculopathy
Janusz Michalewski, Zofia Michalewska, Jerzy Nawrocki
July 2014, 62(7):777-781
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138184  PMID:25116769
Purpose: Our purpose was to study the clinical manifestation and course of optic pit maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD- OCT) images. Materials and Methods: We used SD-OCT to examine 20 eyes of 19 patients with a macular detachment in combination with an optic. Results: We observed five different fovea appearances in regard to fluid localization. In five eyes, we recorded changes in the fluid distribution with SD-OCT. In 17/20 eyes, we noted a communication between the perineural and subretinal and/or intraretinal space at the margin of the optic disc. Conclusion: 3-dimensional SD-OCT (3D-SDOCT) scans revealed a three-fold connection, between subretinal and intraretinal space, perineural space, and the vitreous cavity. Therefore, we suppose that intraretinal or subretinal fluid in optic pit maculopathy may have both a vitreous and cerebrospinal origin. A membrane, covering the optic nerve was noted in 14 cases. Even if it seems intact in some B-scans, it is not complete in others several micrometers apart. Additionally, we observed fluid accumulation below the margin of the optic disc and hyperreflective porous tissue in the optic disc excavation. Those findings do not influence the course of maculopathy.
  3,998 308 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nanostructure-based platforms-current prospective in ophthalmic drug delivery
Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Alaa Eldeen B Yassin
July 2014, 62(7):768-772
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138301  PMID:25116766
The topically applied drugs as drops are washed off from the eye in very short period, resulting in low ocular bioavailability of drugs. Number of approaches have been attempted to increase the bioavailability and the duration of action of ocular drugs. This review provides an insight into various novel approaches; hydrophilic nanogels, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanosponges applied very recently in the delivery of insoluble drugs, prolonging the ocular residence time, minimize pre-corneal drug loss and, therefore, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the drugs. Despite various scientific approaches, efficient ocular drug delivery remains a challenge for pharmaceutical scientists.
  2,662 340 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Orbital cellulitis in a neonate of the tooth bud origin : A case report
Poonam Lavaju, Badri Prasad Badhu, Basudha Khanal, Bhuwan Govinda Shrestha
July 2014, 62(7):817-819
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138296  PMID:25116779
Orbital cellulitis is a serious, yet uncommon infection in neonates. It can result in significant sight and life threatening complications. Most commonly, it occurs secondarily as the result of a spread of infection from the sinuses. Orbital cellulitis, secondary to dental infection is rare. We hereby report a case of orbital cellulitis secondary to dental infection in a 15-day-old neonate without any systemic features.
  2,585 204 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia with corneal furrow degeneration
Pukhraj Rishi, Carol L Shields, Ralph C Eagle
July 2014, 62(7):809-811
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138625  PMID:25116776
A 68-year-old man presented with redness of left eye since six months. Examination revealed bilateral corneal furrow degeneration. Left eye lesion was suggestive of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, encroaching on to cornea. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) confirmed peripheral corneal thinning. Fluorescein angiography confirmed intrinsic vascularity of lesion. Patient was managed with "no touch" surgical excision, dry keratectomy without alcohol, cryotherapy, and primary closure. Pathologic examination of removed tissue confirmed clinical diagnosis. Management of this particular case required modification of standard treatment protocol. Unlike the alcohol-assisted technique of tumor dissection described, ethyl alcohol was not used for risk of corneal perforation due to underlying peripheral corneal thinning. Likewise, topical steroids were withheld in the post-operative period. Three weeks post-operatively, left eye was healing well. Hence, per-operative usage of absolute alcohol and post-operative use of topical steroids may be best avoided in such eyes.
  2,402 175 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcomes of chronic macular hole surgical repair
Shripaad Y Shukla, Armin R Afshar, Daniel F Kiernan, Seenu M Hariprasad
July 2014, 62(7):795-798
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138302  PMID:25116773
Purpose: To report visual and anatomic outcomes of chronic macular hole surgery, with analysis of pre-operative OCT-based hole size and post-operative closure type. Settings and Design: An IRB-approved, retrospective case series of 26 eyes of 24 patients who underwent surgery for stage 3 or 4 idiopathic chronic macular holes at a tertiary care referral center. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test. Results: Nineteen of 26 eyes (73%) had visual improvement after surgery on most recent exam. Twenty-one of 26 eyes (81%) achieved anatomic closure; 16 of 26 eyes (62%) achieved type 1, and five of 26 eyes (19%) achieved type 2 closure. Post-operative LogMAR VA for type 1 closure holes (0.49) was significantly greater than for type 2 closure and open holes (1.26, P < 0.003 and 1.10, P < 0.005, respectively), despite similar pre-operative VA (P = 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Mean pre-operative hole diameter for eyes with type 1 closure, type 2 closure, and holes that remained open were 554, 929, and 1205 microns, respectively. Mean pre-operative hole diameter was significantly larger in eyes that remained open as compared to eyes with type 1 closure (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Vitrectomy to repair chronic macular holes can improve vision and achieve long-term closure. Holes of greater than 3.4 years duration were associated with a greater incidence of remaining open and type 2 closure. Larger holes (mean diameter of 1205 microns) were more likely to remain open after repair.
  2,278 293 -
Personal A-constant in relation to axial length with various intraocular lenses
Mohamed A Eldaly, Khaled A Mansour
July 2014, 62(7):788-791
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138300  PMID:25116771
Purpose: To study the relationship between the axial length and personal A-constant for the 1-piece Tecnis (Abbott ZCB00), AcrySof MA60AC (Alcon) and the Quatrix aspheric preloaded (CROMA) intraocular lenses (IOL). Materials and Methods: Patients matching the inclusion criteria were further subdivided according to the implanted IOL in this prospective comparative study. The obtained refractive outcomes were introduced into the formula installed in the biometry machine (Humphrey model 820 ultrasonic biometer) to obtain the personal A-constant for each eye. Polynomial regression analysis was done to study the individualized A-constant for each type of IOL in relation to preoperative axial length measurement. Results: Two hundred and forty five eyes of 186 patients were enrolled into this study, of whom 73 eyes with Tecnis 1-piece, 116 eyes with MA60AC, and 56 eyes with Quatrix. The median of personalized A-constant for Tecnis 1-piece, MA60AC, and Quatrix were 119.21 (SD 1.3, Std. Mean error 0.15), 119 (SD 1.2, Std. Mean error 0.11) and 120.4 (SD 1.2, Std. Mean error 0.16) respectively. Regression plots for the same range of axial length among all the groups showed that the Tecnis1 group followed the same pattern of the Quatrix group in which there was a linear relationship of a trend towards myopia when the axial length had increased and a hyperopic shift when decreased. This relationship changed into a plateau when the axial length became in the range of 23.5 mm to 27 mm in the MA60AC group. Conclusions: Personal A-constant follows different trends with different IOLs even for the same range of axial length.
  2,193 207 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
A study regarding efficacy of various intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population
Ashish Mitra, Elesh Jain, Alok Sen, Shubhi Tripathi
July 2014, 62(7):826-828
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138634  PMID:25116783
Efficacy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population. Retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with high axial length (AL) (>24.5 mm, range 24.75-32.35 mm). The power of the implanted intraocular lens (IOL) was used to calculate the predicted post-operative refractive error by four formulas: Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK II), SRK/T, Holladay 1, and Hoffer Q. The predictive accuracy of the formulas was analyzed by comparing the difference between the "actual" and "predicted" postoperative refractive errors. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were done to have pair-wise comparisons between the formulas and P < 0.05 was considered significant. A subcategory of axial length 24.5-26.5 mm was also tested. Holladay 1, Hoffer Q and SRK/T formulas showed a slight tendency toward resultant hyperopia, with mean error of +0.24 diopters (D), +0.58 D, and +0.92 D, respectively. The Holladay 1 formula provided the best predictive result overall.
  2,028 257 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The methodological quality of systematic reviews comparing intravitreal bevacizumab and alternates for neovascular age related macular degeneration: A systematic review of reviews
Pradeep Paul George, Joseph Antonio DeCastro Molina, Bee Hoon Heng
July 2014, 62(7):761-767
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138615  PMID:25116765
Objective: To systematically collate and evaluate the evidence from recent SRs of bevacizumab for neo-vascular age related macular degeneration. Materials and Methods: Literature searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Cochrane databases for all systematic reviews (SRs) on the effectiveness of bevacizumab for neo-vascular age related macular degeneration, published between 2000 and 2013. Titles and abstracts were assessed against the inclusion/exclusion criteria using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) study eligibility form. Data was extracted using the JBI data extraction form. The quality of the SRs was assessed using JBI critical appraisal checklist for SRs. Decisions on study eligibility and quality were made by two reviewers; any disagreements were resolved by discussion. Results: Nine relevant reviews were identified from 30 citations, of which 5 reviews fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. All 5 reviews showed bevacizumab to be effective for neovascular AMD in the short-term when used alone or in combination with PDT or Pegaptanib. The average quality score of the reviews was 7; 95% confidence interval 6.2 to 7.8 (maximum possible quality score is 10). The selection and publication bias were not addressed in all included reviews. Three-fifth of the reviews had a quality score of 7 or lower, these reviews had some methodological limitations, search strategies were only identified in 2 (40%) reviews, independent study selection and quality assessment of included studies (4 (80%)) were infrequently performed. Conclusion: Overall, the reviews on the effectiveness of intravitreal/systemic bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular generation (AMD) received good JBI quality scores (mean score = 7.0 points), with a few exceptions. The study also highlights the suboptimal reporting of SRs on this topic. Reviews with poor methodology may limit the validity of the reported results; hence efforts should be made to improve the design, reporting and publication of SRs across all journals.
  1,692 314 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Using the rebound tonometer to measure intraocular pressure in an anesthetized patient
Jitendra Jethani
July 2014, 62(7):832-832
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138185  PMID:25116785
  1,665 249 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in association with optic nervehead drusen
Bharathi Megur, Deepak Megur, Umesh Megur, Sandeep Reddy
July 2014, 62(7):829-831
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138636  PMID:25116784
Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are incidental ophthalmologic finding in the optic nerve. Patients with ONHD are often asymptomatic, but sometimes present with transient visual obscuration's (TVO), the reported incidence of which is 8.6%. Optic nerve head drusen are of two types: Superficial; visible and deep. The deep-buried drusen mimic papilledema. Because of the varied presentation deep-buried drusen pose a diagnostic challenge to the ophthalmologists. In young patients, they are mistaken for papilledema as it is clinically difficult to detect a buried drusen in the optic nerve head, but are seen on the surface with aging as the retinal nerve fiber layer thins out. They are observed as pale yellow lesions more often located towards the poles. Clinical examination aided with diagnostic tests like computed tomography (CT) orbits and ultrasound B scan can help establish the diagnosis. Herein, we report a rare case of optic nerve head drusen in a young lady, who presented with loss of vision and clinical evaluation and investigations suggested ONHD with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.
  1,651 184 -
Feedback of final year ophthalmology postgraduates about their residency ophthalmology training in South India
K Ajay, R Krishnaprasad
July 2014, 62(7):814-817
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138628  PMID:25116778
Background and Aims: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduate students on the subject of their residency training. A similar survey conducted 7 years ago published in IJO had concluded that the residency program was not up to expectations in many centers. Our study aimed to see if ophthalmology training and student perceptions differed since then. Materials and Methods: For our study, we added a few questions to the same questionnaire used in the article "which is the best method to learn ophthalmology? Resident doctors' perspective of ophthalmology training" published in IJO, Vol. 56 (5). Results: Forty-nine students (62.02%) returned completed forms. Most students desired an orientation program on entering residency, and wished to undergo diagnostic training initially. Case-presentation with demonstration and Wet-lab learning were most preferred. There was a big difference between the number of surgeries students actually performed and the number they felt would have been ideal. Conclusion: On the whole, the students still felt the need for improved training across all aspects of ophthalmology.
  1,502 208 -
Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka
Prabhakar S Krishnachary, Vijaykumar G Shankarappa, Rajendra Rajarathnam, Mahesh Shanthappa
July 2014, 62(7):822-824
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138183  PMID:25116781
Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.
  1,511 148 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Experiences with E-learning in Ophthalmology
Seema Dutt Bandhu, Swati Raje
July 2014, 62(7):792-794
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138297  PMID:25116772
Introduction: E-learning is the use of internet for the purpose of education. E-learning in medical education is at a nascent stage in our country. The present study was carried out with the purpose of introducing e-learning to third year medical students in the subject of Ophthalmology and taking feedback on their attitude towards the new methodology of teaching and evaluating. Materials and Methods: E-learning was introduced to the seventh semester students of MBBS in the subject of Ophthalmology. The topics were converted to web friendly format and used for teaching and evaluating. Feedback was taken from the students on completion of the term on their attitudes towards e-learning and their views on the scope of e-learning in medical education. Results: All the students agreed on the usefulness of e-learning in medical education. Eleven students (27.5%) found the medium of e-learning to be interesting, 15 (37.5%) considered it to be easy and accessible, 10 (25%) found it to be fast and easy, 4 (10%) considered it to be a medium which can give updated information. Twenty-three (57.5%) students considered that e-learning should be a medium of instruction in all the subjects, 15 (37.5%) students considered its usefulness in clinical subjects only. Twenty-eight students (70%) desired that e-learning should be used to provide important notes, questions, MCQs on all topics. Conclusions: E-learning is well accepted as a medium of instruction by medical students.
  1,396 235 -
Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliative glaucoma patients
Emrullah Beyazyildiz, Özlem Beyazyıldız, Hasan Basri Arifoğlu, Ayşegül Koçak Altıntaş, Șükrü Gültekin Köklü
July 2014, 62(7):782-787
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138180  PMID:25116770
Aim: We sought to identify differences in the following measures of the ocular response analyser (ORA) between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliative glaucoma (EXG) patients: Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg). We also sought to relate these ORA measures with central corneal thickness (CCT). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 162 individuals (46 EXG patients, 66 POAG patients and 50 healthy subjects without any ocular and systemic disease). ORA measurements were performed, and a minimum of three readings were obtained from each test subject. Groups were compared according to their ORA parameters. Results: The mean CH levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 7.6 ± 2.1, 9.1 ± 1.9 and 9.6 ± 1.7 mmHg, respectively. CH was significantly lower in the EXG patients compared to the other groups (P < 0.001).The mean CRF levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 9.0 ± 2.0, 10.1 ± 1.7 and 9.8 ± 1.8mmHg, respectively. CRF levels in the eyes of the EXG patients were significantly lower compared to those of either the POAG patients (P = 0.005) or the healthy subjects (P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference in CRF levels between the POAG patients and the healthy subjects (P = 0.59). There was a significant positive correlation between CH and CCT in the EXG patients and healthy subjects (P < 0.001), but this correlation was not present in the POAG patients (P = 0.70). Conclusions: In this study, CH and CRF were found to be significantly reduced in the eyes of EXG patients compared to both the POAG patients and healthy subjects. Reduced CH in EXG patients might result in decreased support of peripapillary scleral structure and increased damage to the optic nerve during IOP increase.
  1,239 189 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Combined special capsular tension ring and toric IOL implantation for management of post-DALK high regular astigmatism with subluxated traumatic cataract
Asim Kumar Kandar
July 2014, 62(7):819-822
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138294  PMID:25116780
We report a case of 18-year-old male who has undergone phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL (AcrySof IQ SN6AT9) after fixation of lens capsule with Cionni's capsular tension ring (CTR) for subluxated traumatic cataract with high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). He underwent right eye DALK for advanced keratoconus four years earlier. He had history of trauma one year later with displaced clear crystalline lens into  anterior chamber and graft dehiscence, which was repaired successfully. The graft survived, but patient developed cataract with subluxated lens, for which phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL was done. Serial  topography showed regular corneal astigmatism of -5.50 diopter (K 1 42.75 D @130°, K 2 48.25 D @40°). At 10-month follow-up, the patient has BCVA 20/30 with + 0.75 DS/- 1.75 DC @ 110°. The capsular bag is quite stable with well-centered IOL. Combination of Cionni's ring with toric IOL could be a good option to manage such complex cases.
  1,266 138 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) for retinal detachment
Vivek Chaturvedi, Ryan P Basham, Kourous A Rezaei
July 2014, 62(7):804-808
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138621  PMID:25116775
Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91) of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91) while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.
  1,225 166 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material
Salil S Gadkari, Sucheta R Kulkarni, Kuldeep Dole
July 2014, 62(7):824-826
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138168  PMID:25116782
We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.
  1,185 111 -
Luxation of Eye ball following trauma: Novel simple treatment
Essam A Osman, Adel Al-Akeely
July 2014, 62(7):812-813
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138626  PMID:25116777
Luxation of the eye globe is a rare occasion but it carries a risk of threat to permanent vision loss especially when associated with very high intraocular pressure. Appropriate intervention should be undertaken instantly. Predisposing factors include; eyes as in shallow orbital sockets, floppy eyelid syndrome, and exophthalmos. Prompt reduction results in restoration of full anatomical and visual recovery in otherwise healthy eyes. We report a case of globe luxation following trauma by door handle in a 65-year-old female, who recovered completely after reposition of the globe using Desmarres Lid Retractors.
  1,145 137 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The perceived personality traits of adults with digitally induced large angle strabismus and the impact of its correction
Mihir Kothari, Vitan Joshi
July 2014, 62(7):773-776
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138617  PMID:25116768
Purpose: To ascertain the effect of digitally induced large angle strabismus and its correction on social bias against strabismic adults. Subjects and Methods: This prospective, observational study included 10 orthotropic subjects whose face photographs were digitally altered to produce esotropia, exotropia, and hypertropia. Three batches of non-medical professionals, each consisting of 14 subjects, adjudged personality traits of the altered face photographs on a 10-item questionnaire. The same evaluators effected the appraisal of the orthotropic photographs. The personality score of the strabismic photograph of a subject was compared with its own orthotropic photograph. Results: The 10 subjects whose photographs were digitally modified were of the same age (21 years) and had equal gender distribution. The evaluation of the photographs was performed by 42 evaluators aged 38.3 ± 14.9 years, of whom 21 were males. Different personality traits were rated negatively in the strabismic photographs. The statistically significant negative impact was apparent on more number of personality traits for esotropia (7 out of 10) as compared to exotropia (4 out of 10) or hypertropia (3 out of 10). Rating of the strabismic photographs was significantly lower by female evaluators (P = 0.006). However, there was no difference whether the subject evaluating the photograph of the strabismic individual was of the same gender or the opposite gender. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was excellent (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.81). Conclusion: There was a significant negative impact of strabismus on the perceived personality traits of the digitally altered face photographs of the adults when compared to their orthotropic photograph.
  1,104 175 -
Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20
Danish Alam, Adeeb Alam Khan, Sadat AO Bani, Richa Sharma, Abadan K Amitava
July 2014, 62(7):799-803
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138620  PMID:25116774
Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs), psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs) and functional subscale scores (FSSs) following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20) questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT]), back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009) and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009). OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001). Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02), on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01). The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02). Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04), largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week.
  992 166 -
EDITORIAL
The aesthetic eye
Sundaram Natarajan
July 2014, 62(7):759-760
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138613  PMID:25116764
  744 200 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Treatment options for myopic CNV - Is photodynamic therapy still relevant?
Milton C Chew, Colin S Tan
July 2014, 62(7):834-835
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138174  PMID:25116788
  787 104 -
Massive submacular hemorrhage resulting in acute angle closure
Wei Kiong Ngo, Kai Xiong Cheong, Colin SH Tan
July 2014, 62(7):833-834
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138176  PMID:25116787
  769 90 -
Varied phenotype of Homocystinuria: Possible diagnostic error
Sufin Yap
July 2014, 62(7):835-835
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138637  PMID:25116789
  686 122 1
Isolated complete bitemporal hemianopia in traumatic chiasmal syndrome
Swati Phuljhele, Savleen Kaur
July 2014, 62(7):832-833
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138649  PMID:25116786
  523 114 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

July 2014, 62(7):772-772
PMID:2511676 Ophthalmol
  299 71 -