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   2015| January  | Volume 63 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 16, 2015

 
 
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OPHTHALMIC PERSPECTIVE
Current review and a simplified "five-point management algorithm" for keratoconus
Rohit Shetty, Luci Kaweri, Natasha Pahuja, Harsha Nagaraja, Kareeshma Wadia, Chaitra Jayadev, Rudy Nuijts, Vishal Arora
January 2015, 63(1):46-53
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151468  PMID:25686063
Keratoconus is a slowly progressive, noninflammatory ectatic corneal disease characterized by changes in corneal collagen structure and organization. Though the etiology remains unknown, novel techniques are continuously emerging for the diagnosis and management of the disease. Demographical parameters are known to affect the rate of progression of the disease. Common methods of vision correction for keratoconus range from spectacles and rigid gas-permeable contact lenses to other specialized lenses such as piggyback, Rose-K or Boston scleral lenses. Corneal collagen cross-linking is effective in stabilizing the progression of the disease. Intra-corneal ring segments can improve vision by flattening the cornea in patients with mild to moderate keratoconus. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment betters the quality of vision by correcting the refractive error and improving the contact lens fit. In advanced keratoconus with corneal scarring, lamellar or full thickness penetrating keratoplasty will be the treatment of choice. With such a wide spectrum of alternatives available, it is necessary to choose the best possible treatment option for each patient. Based on a brief review of the literature and our own studies we have designed a five-point management algorithm for the treatment of keratoconus.
  10,761 2,172 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Loop myopexy with true muscle transplantation for very large angle heavy eye syndrome patient
Jitendra Jethani, Sonal Amin
January 2015, 63(1):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151480  PMID:25686070
A 42-year-old man presenting with complaints of squint for last 20 years. His visual acuity was 20/400 in right eye (RE) and 20/30 in left eye (LE) with glasses. His refraction was RE -16.75/-2.5 D cycl 180 and LE was -14.5/-1.5 D cycl 180. His axial length was 31.23 mm In RE and 29.72 mm in LE. On examination we found he had RE large esotropia with hypotropia measuring 130 pd base out and 40 pd base up in RE. A computerized tomography scan revealed that the superior rectus (SR) was shifted nasally, and lateral rectus (LR) was shifted inferiorly. A RE medial rectus (MR) recession and LR resection with muscle transplantation on the MR was done. A loop myopexy was done to correct the path of the LR and SR. The patient had only 18 pd eso and 20 pd hypo on follow-up after 3 months. Loop myopexy in conjunction with muscle transplantation is a safe and effective procedure for large angle esotropia associated with heavy eye syndrome.
  2,713 448 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of subjects with a moderate cup to disc ratio using optical coherence tomography and Heidelberg retina tomograph 3: Impact of the disc area
Fatih Ulas, Ümit Dogan, Abdulgani Kaymaz, Fatih Çelik, Serdal Çelebi
January 2015, 63(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151454  PMID:25686054
Aim: The aim was to evaluate subjects with a moderate cup to disc ratio using optical coherence tomograph (OCT) and Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) 3. Settings and Design: We included 80 patients with early glaucoma and 80 nonglaucomatous subjects with moderate cup/disc ratio (range of 0.5-0.8) to this cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: We compared results of color-coded algorithms of HRT 3 (Moorfields regression analysis [MRA] and Glaucoma probability score [GPS]) and OCT. All outputs are classified into three categories: Within normal limits (WNLs), borderline and outside normal limits (ONLs). Diagnostic accuracies of algorithms were determined using the highest sensitivity criteria. Results: The sensitivities of global MRA, GPS and OCT were 0.75, 0.925 and 0.725, respectively, in average disc area group and 0.85, 1.0 and 0.425, respectively, in large disc area group. The specificities of global MRA, GPS and OCT were 0.55, 0.15 and 0.85, respectively, in average disc area group and 0.425, 0.025 and 0.80, respectively, in large disc area group. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of global MRA, GPS and OCT were 0.667, 0.617 and 0.792, respectively, in average disc area group and 0.746, 0.576 and 0.627, respectively, in large disc area group. AUROC of global MRA and OCT combination in the average and large disc area groups were 0.828 and 0.825, respectively. Conclusions: In contrast to GPS and OCT algorithms, diagnostic performance of MRA algorithm increased in large disc area group. Combining MRA and OCT algorithms produced satisfactory diagnostic performance in subjects with an average and large disc area.
  2,403 339 -
Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up
Daniela Domanico, Serena Fragiotta, Alessandro Cutini, Carmela Carnevale, Luigi Zompatori, Enzo Maria Vingolo
January 2015, 63(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151455  PMID:25686055
Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A) and untreated control group (Group B). Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogenol 50 mg, Vitamin E 30 mg and coenzyme Q10 20 mg. CMT and free oxygen radical test (FORT) were analyzed at baseline (T0), 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months in both groups. Results: In Group A, FORT levels and CMT were significantly reduced over time (P < 0.001 for both). In Group B, FORT levels were increased (P < 0.001) and CMT did not vary significantly (P = 0.81) over 3 time points. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the reduction of ROS levels in patients with NPDR thanks to antioxidant therapy. Moreover, our findings have suggested also an influence on retinal thickness.
  2,279 440 -
Decreased keratocyte density and central corneal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma patients undergoing treatment with topical prostaglandin analogues
Sibel Kocabeyoglu, Mehmet C Mocan, Murat Irkec
January 2015, 63(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151456  PMID:25686056
Purpose: To evaluate whether prostaglandin (PG) analogue use is associated with alterations in keratocyte density and central corneal thickness (CCT) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five POAG patients treated with PG analogues for >2 years and 35 control subjects without glaucoma were included in this cross-sectional study. All subjects were underwent CCT measurements using ultrasound pachymetry. Keratocyte densities of each stromal layer were determined by in vivo confocal microscopy. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical evaluations. Correlations between keratocyte densities and CCT were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Keratocyte densities in each stromal layer were significantly lower in glaucoma patients receiving PG analogues as compared to those of controls (P < 0.001). The mean CCT was also lower in glaucoma patients (515.2 ± 18.8 μ) than control subjects (549.6 ± 21.1 μ, P < 0.001). A positive correlation between keratocyte densities in each stromal layer and CCT was observed in POAG patients. Conclusions: Long-term administration of topical PG analogues may adversely influence keratocyte densities and CCT. Further prospective studies are required clarify the relationship between PG analogues and their effects on the cornea.
  1,871 361 -
Socioeconomics of long-term glaucoma therapy in India
Bhagabat Nayak, Shikha Gupta, Guresh Kumar, Tanuj Dada, Viney Gupta, Ramanjit Sihota
January 2015, 63(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151458  PMID:25686057
Purpose: To determine the socioeconomic impact of long-term glaucoma therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive glaucoma patients on medical therapy, following up at our glaucoma service for at least 6 months were recruited. A questionnaire regarding monthly income, cost of glaucoma medications prescribed, availability of medications, travel time, time spent in review clinics, compliance, education status, medical insurance and systemic or local side-effects was administered. Results: The patients seen at the tertiary government hospital had an average monthly income of Rs. 10,912/- (range: Rs. 500/- to Rs. 50,000/-) with approximately 56% of the patients having an income of less than Rs. 5000/month. The expenditure on anti-glaucoma medications ranged from 0.3% in high income group to 123% of their monthly gross income in low income group (P < 0.0001). The total expenditure including travel, stay, and loss of wages of patients and accompanying persons ranged from 1.6% in high income group to 137% of the monthly income in low income group (P < 0.0001). Mean time required for a glaucoma clinic visit was 15.66 h, (range: 6-96 h/month). About 2.7% experienced systemic side-effects and 21.3% had complaints of ocular adverse effects. About 90% of the patients were compliant. 92% were not covered by any insurance plan/government reimbursement for their treatment. Conclusions: Medical therapy for glaucoma is an economic burden to many patients and should be individualized, according to the socioeconomic status, availability of drugs and the required distance to travel to reach the specialist clinics.
  1,899 332 -
Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy
VV Chernykh, EV Varvarinsky, EV Smirnov, DV Chernykh, Alexander N Trunov
January 2015, 63(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151464  PMID:25686060
Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF]) in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control) were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05) higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times) compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05) positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45), VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48), VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51), PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48), PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59), MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72), MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45), IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65), IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71), IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59). Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.
  1,527 644 -
Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women
Negar Amiri Ghahfarokhi, Ali Vaseghi, Negin Amiri Ghahfarokhi, Mohammad Ghoreishi, Alireza Peyman, Alireza Dehghani
January 2015, 63(1):30-32
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151463  PMID:25686059
Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3), ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32). We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.40±11.36 and 540.82±11.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.50±7.11 and 555.98±7.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.38±12.83 and 535.48±13.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery.
  1,568 259 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Epiretinal membrane removal in patients with Stargardt disease
Muna Bhende, Bindu Appukuttan, Ekta Rishi
January 2015, 63(1):66-68
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151477  PMID:25686068
Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in Stargardt disease have been known to undergo spontaneous separation in children. Results of surgical intervention in adult patients with Stargardt disease have rarely been reported. A retrospective review of results of surgical intervention for ERM causing visual impairment in two adult patients of Stargardt disease was carried out. Both patients developed ERM in one eye during their follow-up period with the resultant drop in their preexisting visual acuity. Postsurgery, restoration of foveal contour with some improvement in visual acuity was observed in both patients. No adverse effect of surgery was noted.
  1,558 191 -
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Bibliometric trends in ophthalmology 1997-2009
Ahmad M Mansour, Georges E l Mollayess, Robert Habib, Asma Arabi, Walid A Medawar
January 2015, 63(1):54-58
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151471  PMID:25686064
Aims: To track citation patterns in ophthalmic journals and contrast them with major medical and surgical journals from 1997 to 2009. In addition, we want to familiarize the ophthalmic community with bibliometrics indices. Materials and Methods: Data retrieved from Institute for Scientific Information and related websites include 2-year journal impact factor JIF, 5-year impact, Eigenfactor score, H-factor, Article Influence score, and SCImago factor. Results: JIF rose steadily around 10% annually in ophthalmic journals, and likewise for major medical and surgical journals. JIF correlated with recent bibliometric indicators like 5-year impact, H index, and SCImago factor but not with Eigenfactor. Ophthalmic journals publishing reviews, basic science, or large volume on broad range of topics ranked at the top for JIF, while subspecialty journals tended to have low JIF. JIF of subspecialty journal Retina rose from 0.740 (rank 23) in 2000 to 3.088 in 2007 (rank 6). Conclusions: JIF tends to rise annually by 10% in medical, surgical, and ophthalmic fields. Journals publishing reviews, basic science, or large volume on broad range of topics rank at the top for JIF. The rapid rise of JIF for Retina unlike other subspecialties that stayed status quo is multifactorial: Change in editorial policies (introduction of review articles and omission of case reports) and technological advances in the retinal field.
  1,378 208 -
EDITORIAL
Case reports and series: Authenticate rare conditions
Sundaram Natarajan
January 2015, 63(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151453  PMID:25686053
  1,312 253 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and transpupillary thermotherapy on choroidal metastases and literature review
Chun-Ju Lin, Yi-Yu Tsai
January 2015, 63(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151465  PMID:25686061
Aims : To represent the effects of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) and intravitreal bevacizumab on choroidal metastases and review the literature. Settings and Design : A retrospective, interventional, noncomparative case series. Materials and Methods : A retrospective, interventional, noncomparative case series of five eyes in three patients with choroidal metastases was conducted. Fundus findings of choroidal metastases were divided into two types: Solitary or diffuse type. The size of the tumor was termed small (<10 mm diameter), medium (10-15 mm diameter) or large (>15 mm diameter). All eyes received one session of TTT followed by 3 weekly intravitreal bevacizumab injections as an adjuvant therapy. The parameters of treatment for TTT were 1.2-3 mm spot size, 150-300 mW, 60 s with the whole lesion covered confluently. The changes in preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Serial color fundus photography and optical coherent tomography were performed to measure the treatment efficacy. Results : All eight choroidal metastases were solitary type. The size of six tumors was small, the size of one tumor was medium, and the size of one tumor was large. All five eyes of the three patients had improvement of BCVA after treatment. Fundus photos revealed tumor shrinkage and the mean shrinkage percentage was 61.27 ± 21.71%. Optical coherence tomography revealed complete resolution of serous retinal detachment. There was no recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Conclusions : TTT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injections brought about beneficial effects in reducing tumor size and improving vision in all five eyes of the three patients. Despite the retrospective nature of our study, the absence of control group and the size limitation that, of course, limit the statistical power, TTT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab seems to be efficient in providing another cost-reducing and time-saving treatment option for patients with choroidal metastases. The antineoplastic properties of bevacizumab make it a viable adjunctive therapy. Studies with more cases and a longer follow-up period are warranted.
  1,018 501 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Vitamin D supplementation in antiphospholipid syndrome patients
N Venugopal
January 2015, 63(1):82-82
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151497  PMID:25686077
  1,343 167 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Bilateral optic neuropathy and intraretinal deposits after pars plana vitrectomy in amyloidosis
Rossetti Alberto, Spedicato Luigi, Fassina Ambrogio, Doro Daniele
January 2015, 63(1):72-74
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151481  PMID:25686071
Pathological examination of material from a nonextensive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in the right eye provided a diagnosis of nonfamilial amyloidosis in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral glass wool-like vitreous opacities. Genetic testing revealed a Tyr114Cys mutation in the transthyretin gene. Six months after PPV, perimetry showed intense constriction with a temporal island and central scotoma in the right eye. An extensive PPV was performed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography evidenced bilateral epimacular amyloid deposits and unreported reflective spots within the inner retina. One year later, visual acuity had decreased to 20/400 in the left eye, with mild vitreous opacity, pale cupped optic disc and inferior altitudinal field defect. Bilateral diurnal intraocular pressure, transiently increased after PPV, never exceeded 16 mmHg with medication. Our patient presented optic nerve blood supply impairment, due to amyloidosis, which caused optic atrophy. Epiretinal and intraretinal deposit detection could aid in diagnosing patients with suspected amyloidosis.
  1,315 169 -
Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony
T Ashwini Kini, VS Prakash, Suresh Puthalath, PL Bhandari
January 2015, 63(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151474  PMID:25686066
Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.
  1,296 155 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Short-term efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion that is refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab
Seul Gi Yoo, Jae Hui Kim, Tae Gon Lee, Chul Gu Kim, Jong Woo Kim
January 2015, 63(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151460  PMID:25686058
Aims: To evaluate the 1-month efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in treating macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) that was refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, observational study included 23 eyes from 23 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO. Macular edema that did not respond to two or more consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections was treated with intravitreal TA. Central foveal thickness (CFT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared before and one month after TA injection. Results: Fifteen eyes were diagnosed with central RVO, and eight eyes were diagnosed with branch RVO. All patients were previously treated with 2.4 ± 0.6 intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The TA injection was performed, on average, 5.8 ± 1.4 weeks after the last bevacizumab injection. The CFT before TA injection was 516.6 ± 112.4 μm and significantly decreased to 402.3 ± 159.7 μm after TA therapy (P < 0.001). The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution BCVA was 0.72 ± 0.34 before TA therapy and was not significantly improved by the treatment (0.67 ± 0.35, P = 0.119), despite a decrease in CFT. However, seven eyes (30.4%) had a BCVA gain of one or more lines. Conclusions: Intravitreal TA therapy was beneficial in some patients with macular edema secondary to RVO that was refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab therapy. This study suggests that intravitreal TA should be considered as a treatment option for refractory macular edema.
  1,156 291 -
Converting a conventional wired-halogen illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope to a wireless-light emitting diode illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope in less than 1000/- rupees
Mihir Kothari, Kedar Kothari, Sanjay Kadam, Poonam Mota, Snehal Chipade
January 2015, 63(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151466  PMID:25686062
Aim: To report the "do it yourself" method of converting an existing wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope (IO) to a wireless-light emitting diode (LED) IO and report the preferences of the patients and the ophthalmologists. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective observational study, a conventional IO was converted to wireless-LED IO using easily available, affordable electrical components. Conventional and the converted IO were then used to perform photo-stress test and take the feedback of subjects and the ophthalmologists regarding its handling and illumination characteristics. Results: The cost of conversion to wireless-LED was 815/- rupees. Twenty-nine subjects, mean age 34.3 ΁ 10 years with normal eyes were recruited in the study. Between the two illumination systems, there was no statistical difference in the magnitude of the visual acuity loss and the time to recovery of acuity and the bleached vision on photo-stress test, although the visual recovery was clinically faster with LED illumination. The heat sensation was more with halogen illumination than the LED (P = 0.009). The ophthalmologists rated wireless-LED IO higher than wired-halogen IO on the handling, examination comfort, patient's visual comfort and quality of the image. Twenty-two (81%) ophthalmologists wanted to change over to wireless-LED IO. Conclusions: Converting to wireless-LED IO is easy, cost-effective and preferred over a wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope.
  1,197 195 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Ocular pressure waveform reflects ventricular bigeminy and aortic insufficiency
Jean B Kassem, Steven E Katz, Ashraf M Mahmoud, Robert H Small, Subha V Raman, Cynthia J Roberts
January 2015, 63(1):59-61
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151472  PMID:25686065
Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum intraocular pressure (IOP) during a cardiac cycle. Average values of OPA range from 1 to 4 mmHg. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the source of an irregular IOP waveform with elevated OPA in a 48-year-old male. Ocular pressure waveforms had an unusual shape consistent with early ventricular contraction. With a normal IOP, OPA was 9 mmHg, which is extraordinarily high. The subject was examined by a cardiologist and was determined to be in ventricular bigeminy. In addition, he had bounding carotid pulses and echocardiogram confirmed aortic insufficiency. After replacement of the aortic valve, the bigeminy resolved and the ocular pulse waveform became regular in appearance with an OPA of 1.6-2.0 mmHg. The ocular pressure waveform is a direct reflection of hemodynamics. Evaluating this waveform may provide an additional opportunity for screening subjects for cardiovascular anomalies and arrhythmias.
  1,148 138 -
To report a case of unilateral proliferative retinopathy following noncerebral malaria with Plasmodium falciparum in Southern India
Aditya Verma, MS Krishna
January 2015, 63(1):63-66
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151475  PMID:25686067
The retinopathy in association with malaria fever described so far includes retinal hemorrhages, vessel changes, retinal discoloration/whitening and papilledema. Malaria retinopathy has been mostly described in severe cases, associated with Plasmodium falciparum, correlating the patho-physiology of retinal and cerebral manifestations. We report an unusual case of proliferative retinopathy as a manifestation of malaria fever, caused by P. falciparum with no cerebral involvement. The patient had features of unilateral retinal vascular occlusion with proliferative changes and vitreous hemorrhage. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has never been reported so far in the literature. This report highlights the possible occurrence of severe proliferative changes associated with malaria fever, which if diagnosed early can prevent possible blindness.
  1,053 183 -
Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope
P Mahesh Shanmugam, Rajesh Ramanjulu, KC Divyansh Mishra
January 2015, 63(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151479  PMID:25686069
Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.
  944 180 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Comment on Linezolid induced optic neuropathy
Patel Chaitali, Ramchandani Suresh
January 2015, 63(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151484  PMID:25686072
  843 211 -
Comment on Student-teacher research: A dilemma between power, ethics, and morality
Deepak Saxena, Deepika Singhal, Minal Patel
January 2015, 63(1):76-77
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151485  PMID:25686073
  784 184 -
Primary posterior capsulectomy with anterior vitrectomy in adult traumatic cataracts
Navneet Mehrotra, Gaurav Paranjpe
January 2015, 63(1):82-83
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151498  PMID:25686078
  809 122 -
Author's Response: Prosthetic Rehabilitation after Orbital Exenteration: A case series
Gunjan Pruthi, Veena Jain, Suresh Rajendiran, Ritu Jha
January 2015, 63(1):79-79
PMID:25834854
  776 135 -
Primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8 + T-cell lymphoma on upper eyelid
Joon Lee, You Jin Yang, Jung-In Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Won-Serk Kim
January 2015, 63(1):81-82
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151496  PMID:25686076
  761 142 -
Comment on Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliative glaucoma patients
Fatih C Gundogan, Abdullah Ilhan, Umit Yolcu
January 2015, 63(1):77-78
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151489  PMID:25686074
  603 120 -
Author's response Comments on Repeat gas insufflation for successful closure of idiopathic macular hole following failed primary surgery
Pukhraj Rishi, Sumanth Reddy, Ekta Rishi
January 2015, 63(1):80-81
PMID:25834855
  506 98 -
Comment on Repeat gas insufflation for successful closure of idiopathic macular hole following failed primary surgery
Brijesh Takkar, Indrish Bhatia, Yamini Attiku, Vinod Kumar
January 2015, 63(1):79-80
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151494  PMID:25686075
  475 106 -
Author's Response: Maximizing the visual outcome in traumatic cataract cases: The value of a primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy
Mehul A Shah, Shreya M Shah, Krunal D Patel, Ashit H Shah, Jaimini S Pandya
January 2015, 63(1):83-84
PMID:25834856
  459 117 -
Author's reply
Seema Dutt Bandhu, Swati Raje
January 2015, 63(1):77-77
  405 93 -
Author's reply
Emrullah Beyazyildiz, Özlem Beyazyildiz, Hasan Basri Arifoglu, Aysegül Kocak Altintas, Şükrü Gültekin Köklü
January 2015, 63(1):78-78
  294 93 -