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   2018| August  | Volume 66 | Issue 8  
    Online since July 23, 2018

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Modified sewing machine technique for iridodialysis repair, intraocular lens relocation, iris coloboma repair, Cionni ring fixation, and scleral-fixated intraocular lens
Karamsetty Venkata Ravi Kumar
August 2018, 66(8):1169-1176
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1320_17  PMID:30038167
The purpose of this study is to report the modification of sewing machine technique for iris dialysis repair (MSMT) and its usefulness in managing other conditions such as intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation, iris coloboma, Cionni ring for zonular dialysis, and for scleral-fixated IOL. MSMT was based on sewing machine principle using a prethreaded 26G/30G needle with prolene suture for minimally invasive iris dialysis repair in a closed chamber manner. So far, eight patients (trauma – 3, surgical complication – 5) underwent this procedure. This technique is further modified to extend its use for IOL relocation – 2, iris coloboma repair – 3, and Cionni ring fixation for zonular dialysis – 2, SFIOL – 5 patients. All 20 patients had good visual recovery and cosmetic outcome with minimal morbidity. To conclude, MSMT offers cost -effective, minimally invasive, easy to learn procedure with a potential to tackle several problems related with cataract surgery and iris defects, which even an average cataract surgeon can learn to perform when required. Further comparative studies with conventional techniques with large sample size are required to standardize this procedure.
  2,687 367 -
Recommendations for an expert team investigating a case of cluster endophthalmitis
Shachi R Desai, Purvi R Bhagat, Dipali Parmar
August 2018, 66(8):1074-1078
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_804_17  PMID:30038144
Occurrence of postoperative cluster endophthalmitis is a nightmare for the operating surgeon, the involved hospital, and the patients. Due to its multifactorial etiology, surveillance of such an event is extremely important to identify the causative factor and to prevent recurrences in future. For surveillance, a team of ophthalmologists and microbiologists is often appointed by the local health department, and it is imperative that this team investigates thoroughly, reports appropriately safeguarding the interests of all, and also suggests remedial measures for future. Much literature is available on postoperative endophthalmitis and sterilization and disinfection protocols, but to the best of our knowledge, there is none to guide the surveillance team regarding the conduct of the entire process of investigation in the case of such unfortunate incidents. Through this article, we have made an attempt to formulate recommendations for expert teams investigating cases of postoperative cluster endophthalmitis.
  2,173 601 -
Intravitreal therapeutic agents in noninfectious uveitic macular edema
Kunal Kaushik Shah, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Jyotirmay Biswas
August 2018, 66(8):1060-1073
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_35_18  PMID:30038143
The management of uveitis is challenging for most treating ophthalmologists. The treatment of uveitis often requires the use of high dose of systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents, which are almost always associated with potential side effects. Intravitreal medications have become a popular mode of drug administration in uveitis patients as they provide high volume of drug to the target tissues, eliminating the risk of systemic toxicity. There has been tremendous development in the intravitreal therapeutics over the last few years. With the advent of sustained-release technique, increasing patient compliance, biodegradable nature of the implant, and introduction of newer agents with better safety profile, the intravitreal medications have become more popular in recent years. This review presents evidence in the scientific literature supporting the use of intravitreal medications for the management of uveitis and its complications.
  2,050 717 -
Improvement of visual acuity in residual meridional amblyopia by astigmatic axis video games
Pradeep G Deshpande, Poonam C Bhalchandra, Aniruddha R Nalgirkar, Sandeep R Tathe
August 2018, 66(8):1156-1160
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1096_17  PMID:30038164
Purpose: This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of developed “astigmatic axis video games” in children and adolescents having meridional amblyopia, with the aim to improve the visual acuity (VA). Till date, no studies are available on the treatment of amblyopic meridian. Meridional amblyopia (MA) results when astigmatism remains untreated for a long period. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a set of novel video games, the astigmatism axis video games (AAVGs), in improving the visual acuity (VA) in MA. Methods: We included 50 eyes with residual myopic MA (cylinder ≥2.0 and ≤4.0 D) whose VA did not improve beyond 0.3 LogMAR equivalent, despite patching for 2 h/day for the preceding 3 months. Patients were subjected to AAVG in conjunction with best-corrected glasses and patching of the better eye for 2 h/day for 3 months. Results: Out of 50 eyes, 32 eyes were from children between 8 and 12 years and 18 were >12 years. Full improvement of LogMAR VA up to 0.0 was seen in 36/50 (72.0%) oblique astigmatism eyes. Partial improvement of LogMAR VA at least 0.3 LogMAR or more was observed in another 7 eyes (14%) eyes. The mean VA improved from 0.43 ± 0.1 LogMAR at baseline to 0.077 ± 0.08 at 3 months (P < 0.001). Good number of eyes (n = 16, 32%) showed speedy visual improvement between 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of AAVG. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory improvement in VA in eyes with residual MA provides preliminary data into the effectiveness of stimulation of the precise amblyopic axis by AAVG in conjunction with spectacles and “minimal patching” regimen of 2 h/day. Further comparative study is warranted.
  1,987 273 -
Zepto-rhexis: A new surgical technique of capsulorhexis using precision nano-pulse technology in difficult cataract cases
Suresh K Pandey, Vidushi Sharma
August 2018, 66(8):1165-1168
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1006_17  PMID:30038166
Several techniques are used to make a capsulorhexis in white mature cataract cases as needle cystotome, Utrata capsulorhexis forceps, microincision capsulorhexis forceps, femtosecond Laser, etc. Zepto precision nano-pulse capsulotomy device (Mynosys Cellular Devices; Fremont, CA, USA) is Food and Drug Administration approved, a disposable capsulotomy device that uses low-energy pulses to create a precise central capsulorhexis, independent of pupil size, corneal clarity, or lens density. In this article, the authors report their experience of performing anterior circular curvilinear capsulorhexis with Zepto precision nano-pulse capsulotomy device in challenging cataract cases done at our center. The Zepto handpiece device was inserted through 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. Results of our study in 3 cataract cases (intumescent cataract, morgagnian cataract, and cataract with small pupil) revealed that the precision pulse capsulotomy technology mechanically and simultaneously cleaves all 360° of the apposed capsule of without cauterizing it, creating CCC of 5.2 mm size.
  1,914 346 -
Optical coherence tomography angiography in acute unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: A comparison with the fellow eye and with eyes with papilledema
Uppal Gandhi, Jay Chhablani, Akshay Badakere, Ramesh Kekunnaya, Mohammed Abdul Rasheed, Abhilash Goud, Preeti Patil Chhablani
August 2018, 66(8):1144-1148
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_179_18  PMID:30038161
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to detect the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary perfusion in eyes with acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) compared to the fellow normal eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare with nonischemic disc edema (papilledema). Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with unilateral NAION who underwent OCTA was performed. All patients underwent comprehensive ocular examination including visual field testing. ONH was imaged using 6 mm × 6 mm scan by Topcon DRI Triton® OCT system. Vascularity loss was analyzed using ImageJ software in diseased eyes in comparison to normal fellow eyes and eyes with papilledema. Results: Twenty-one patients (15 males, 6 females) with unilateral NAION and 9 patients (18 eyes) with papilledema were included in the study. In eyes with NAION, two distinct patterns of loss of vasculature were noted – (a) diffuse loss of microvasculature cuff and vascular network around the optic disc in all the patients (100%) and (b) additional area of sectoral loss of vasculature extending from the disc in 12 of the 21 eyes (57.14%). All 18 eyes with papilledema showed loss of the microvasculature cuff; however, none showed the focal pattern of vascular defect. The mean area of the peripapillary vascular zone in eyes with NAION was significantly lesser than that in normals. Of the 12 eyes with NAION with focal loss of vasculature, 11 correlated with visual field defects (91.6%). Conclusion: Deficient peripapillary choroidal vasculature is present in NAION and has a different pattern than in nonischemic disc edema and can cause corresponding visual field deficits.
  1,731 493 -
Long-term outcomes following primary intraocular lens implantation in infants younger than 6 months
Mithila Negalur, Virender Sachdeva, Srividya Neriyanuri, Mohammed Hasnat Ali, Ramesh Kekunnaya
August 2018, 66(8):1088-1093
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_182_18  PMID:30038148
Purpose: To study the long-term safety profile and visual outcomes of primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in infants <6 months of age. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary eye care center in South India. Infants under 6 months meeting the selection criteria who underwent cataract surgery (lens aspiration, primary posterior capsulorhexis, and anterior vitrectomy) with primary IOL implantation between January 2008 and December 2011 and minimum 3-year follow-up were included. Patient demographics, serial refractions, visual acuity, complications, and associated amblyopia/strabismus were reviewed. Visual acuity, myopic shift, and complications were the outcome measures. Results: Sixty-nine eyes of 38 infants (31 bilateral; mean age: 4.6 months) were reviewed. Mean follow-up was 51 months (range: 36–84). Median logMAR best-corrected visual acuity at the final visit was 0.74 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.50–0.98) in eyes with bilateral cataracts and 0.87 (IQR: 0.60–1.14) in eyes with unilateral cataracts with an average myopic shift of 6.7 diopters over 4.2 years. Most common postoperative complication was visual axis opacification (VAO) (13 eyes, 18%), necessitating membranectomy followed by pigmentary IOL deposits (11 eyes, 15%), and IOL decentration and glaucoma in four eyes each (5.6%). Mixed linear effect model found no significant association of age, gender, laterality, and postoperative complications with final visual acuity (P ≥ 0.05). Eyes with unilateral cataracts had a greater myopic shift than bilateral cases (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Primary IOL implantation in infants <6 months is reasonably safe in appropriately selected infants. VAO was the most common postoperative complication, and a large myopic shift was observed.
  1,659 449 -
Multimodal imaging in paracentral acute middle maculopathy
Dhaivat Shah, Kumar Saurabh, Rupak Roy
August 2018, 66(8):1186-1188
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_173_18  PMID:30038173
  1,741 282 -
The Barcelona principles: Relevance to eye banking in India and the way ahead
Santosh G Honavar
August 2018, 66(8):1055-1057
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1213_18  PMID:30038141
  1,312 469 -
Clinical profile of patients with posterior scleritis: A report from Eastern India
Amitabh Kumar, Avirupa Ghose, Jyotirmay Biswas, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder
August 2018, 66(8):1109-1112
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_121_18  PMID:30038152
Purpose: This study aimed to report the clinical profile of patients with posterior scleritis at a tertiary eye center in Eastern India. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective case series of patients who were diagnosed as posterior scleritis between January 2010 and December 2014, with a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Results: The study included 18 patients of posterior scleritis with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.6 years (range: 26–63 years). With female preponderance (55.6%), majority of the posterior scleritis cases were unilateral (88.9%). Sixteen patients reported with diminution of vision, eleven patients (61.1%) had ocular pain on presentation, and five patients complained of headache. Concurrent anterior scleritis was found in three eyes (15%) with posterior scleritis. Choroidal folds and subretinal fluid at the posterior pole were the most common fundus findings and were seen in seven eyes (35%) each. No systemic association was detected in any patient even after extensive laboratory workup and multidisciplinary consultation. All patients received oral steroid, and 11 (61.1%) of them required intravenous pulse steroid therapy. Immunosuppressive was used in 6 (33.3%) patients, and oral azathioprine was the most common immunosuppressive used in the study. Recurrence was noted in eight eyes (40%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved to logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.06 ± 0.051 at the final follow-up from 0.47 ± 0.45 logMAR at presentation (P = 0.00608). Conclusion: Posterior scleritis is relatively rare but can occur without systemic involvement. Aggressive immunomodulatory therapy is required to treat vision-threatening condition.
  1,469 305 -
Isolation of acid from eye drop bottles being used by patients presenting with presumed scleritis
Geetha Iyer, Shweta Agarwal, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy
August 2018, 66(8):1084-1087
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_82_18  PMID:30038147
Purpose: The aim of the study was to report the occurrence of contamination/replacement of ophthalmic eye drops with liquids of acidic nature in patients treated for nonresponding scleritis. Methods: This was a retrospective interventional case series study. Results: Of the three patients (4 eyes) referred as necrotizing scleritis, two were found to have acid as the content in the bottle/s being used as eye drops, confirmed using biochemical tests. All four eyes had tarsal ischemia and tarsal conjunctival defect in addition to severe scleral ischemia involving the inferior bulbar area. All four eyes required tenonplasty with amniotic membrane transplant more than once for the ocular surface to heal. Two of the three patients were on systemic immunosuppressives including pulse cyclophosphamide for refractory necrotizing scleritis. Sulfuric and hydrochloric acid was isolated from the bottles of 2nd and 3rd patient using confirmatory biochemical tests. Conclusion: It is important to be aware of the possibility of contaminating or replacing contents of eye drops with harmful agents of acidic nature and should be considered in situations that resemble the clinical picture described herein.
  1,581 187 -
Torpedo maculopathy with double torpedoes
Biju Raju, Chandrashekar Nooyi, N S D Raju, Saritha Nidheesh
August 2018, 66(8):1189-1190
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_192_18  PMID:30038174
  1,510 207 -
Sudden ocular pain from underlying mass
Su Mae Ang, Basil K Williams Jr., Carol L Shields
August 2018, 66(8):1059-1059
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_947_18  PMID:30038142
  1,214 392 -
Commentary: The changing scenario of cluster endophthalmitis
Atul Kumar, Dheepak M Sundar, Vineet Mutha
August 2018, 66(8):1079-1079
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_530_18  PMID:30038145
  1,142 239 -
Live encysted Thelazia callipaeda presenting as a lump adjacent to the right lacrimal sac in a 42-year-old female: A rare case report
Jayanta Kumar Das, Dipankar Das, Saurabh Deshmukh, Krati Gupta, Sumegha Singh Tomar, Erani Borah
August 2018, 66(8):1220-1223
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_317_18  PMID:30038190
Thelazia callipaeda or the oriental eye worm infects a wide variety of hosts including dogs, cats, foxes, rabbits, and humans through the Drosophila flies. We report here a case of a 42-year-old female who presented with pain, redness, and cystic swelling in the right lacrimal sac area for 8 months. Ocular examination was within normal limits. Excision biopsy of the cyst revealed a live worm. In humans, the worm is usually found in the conjunctival sac, lacrimal canaliculi, or the lacrimal sac leading to a disease which can be subclinical or symptomatic. Thus, we report a rare presentation of thelaziasis, that is, periocular involvement. This case presentation is first of its kind in the Indian literature.
  1,238 141 -
Therapeutic potential of valproic acid in advanced glaucoma: A pilot study
Karthikeyan Mahalingam, Abadh Kumar Chaurasia, Lakshminarayanan Gowtham, Shikha Gupta, Bindu I Somarajan, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Ramanjit Sihota, Viney Gupta
August 2018, 66(8):1104-1108
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_108_18  PMID:30038151
Purpose: Oral valproic acid (VPA) used as an anticonvulsant has been shown to improve contrast threshold sensitivities in patients receiving it on long-term. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral VPA in improving visual function in eyes with advanced stage glaucoma. Methods: In this prospective randomized study, 31 patients (n = 31 eyes) with advanced stage glaucoma (with an intraocular pressure <16 mmHg) in at least one eye received oral VPA 500 mg once a day for 3 months and 33 patients (n = 33 eyes) continued on glaucoma therapy. Patients were followed up at 3 and 12 months (to evaluate the legacy effect of the drug). Blood VPA concentrations were measured at 3 months. Following parameters were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 12 months: log of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) visual acuity, mean deviation on visual fields, and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Median LogMar visual acuity in the VPA group improved from 0.3 at baseline to 0.18 and 0.18 at 3 and 12 months, respectively (P < 0.01). In comparison, the median visual acuity in control group at baseline was 0.18 and showed neither worsening nor improvement over 3 and 12 months (P = 0.56). The improvement in VPA group was significant compared to the control group (P < 0.01; Wilcoxon Signed-rank test). An improvement in one line was experienced in 11 out of 31 eyes in the VPA group compared to 1 out of 33 eyes among controls (P = 0.003). No significant improvement was noted in the mean deviation, and the multifocal ERG (Latency and amplitudes) in the VPA-treated patients. The average blood VPA concentration measured at 3 months of therapy was 26 ± 8.9 μg/ml (range 8–55 μg/ml) which is much lower than that achieved during anticonvulsant therapy. None of the patients complained of any adverse effects that required stopping VPA therapy. Conclusion: A 3 months oral VPA therapy results in some improvement in visual acuity in a subgroup of eyes with advanced glaucoma and the effect was seen to persist 9 months after the drug was stopped.
  1,041 329 -
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the hard palate presenting as ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy
Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Indumati Gopinathan, Rima Singh, Rima S Pathak
August 2018, 66(8):1218-1220
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_21_18  PMID:30038189
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon malignant neoplasm composed of basaloid epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The palate is the most commonly involved intraoral site for ACC. Here, we document the case of an advanced ACC arising from the hard palate that presented with right-sided sixth nerve palsy in a 75-year-old male with no other systemic illnesses. ACC of the head and neck involving the cavernous sinus and presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy is exceedingly rare. In the absence of vasculopathic or ischemic risk factors, regardless of the age of the patient; neuroimaging should be performed in cases of isolated nontraumatic sixth nerve palsy.
  1,089 155 -
Long-term efficacy and safety of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Prashant Jain, Giridhar Anantharaman, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, Anubhav Goyal
August 2018, 66(8):1119-1127
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1222_17  PMID:30038155
Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze the outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) for patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) having visual acuity (VA) better than 20/60 in a real-world scenario in India. Methods: Retrospective review of 42 eyes of 40 patients (mean age 64.3 years) with best-corrected VA (BCVA) 20/60 or better and mean follow-up of 40 months (median 38 months; range 12–71 months) treated with PDT and anti-VEGF or triamcinolone for indocyanine green angiography (ICGA)-proven subfoveal PCV. Results: Mean BCVA improved from 0.22 logMAR at baseline to 0.15 at last visit (P < 0.001). On ICGA, polyp was observed in 42 eyes (100%) and branching vascular network (BVN) in 37 eyes (88.1%). Polyp regressed in 33 (78.6%) of 42 eyes and BVN in 26 (70.3%) of 37 eyes after combined therapy at 3 months. Mean greatest linear diameter reduced significantly (P < 0.001) from 7.22 mm to 4.11 mm. Standard-fluence PDT was performed in 35 eyes and reduced-fluence in 7 eyes. The mean number of PDT was 1.17 with mean number of injections being 6.38 at the end of follow-up. In five eyes, more than one PDT was administered. Of 42 eyes, 40 showed complete resolution of serous macular detachment (SMD) after the combined therapy at 3 months; 17 (42.5%) of the 40 eyes showed no recurrence of fluid on spectral domain optical coherence tomography till the last visit with a mean follow-up of 27 months. On long-term follow-up, SMD reoccurred in 23 eyes with a mean follow-up period of 9.64 ± 5.24 months. Of 38 eyes having a double-layer sign (DLS) on optical coherence tomography at baseline, 37 eyes were having regression of the DLS, that is, it either reduced or resolved at the final visit. At the final visit, 66.7% (P < 0.001) eyes were having fluid-free retina. No complication of subretinal hemorrhage was noted. Of the 42 eyes, only one eye had BCVA worse than 20/60 on the final visit. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to look into the long-term effect of combined PDT with anti-VEGF in PCV in eyes having good VA. Long-term effect of combined PDT appears to be a safe and effective treatment for PCV in eyes having good VA with better outcomes in real-world setting. This study further strengthens the superiority of the combined treatment modality for treatment of subfoveal PCV with no or minimal risk of complication on long-term follow-up.
  973 271 -
The protective effect of simvastatin against ultraviolet B-induced corneal endothelial cell death
Yi-Ru Ho, Chih-Hung Lin, Chan-Yen Kuo
August 2018, 66(8):1080-1083
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_93_18  PMID:30038146
Purpose: Excessive ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causing corneal endothelium injury, including apoptosis, is a serious condition. Therefore, drugs that can inhibit apoptosis in corneal endothelial cells represent an effective strategy. Simvastatin is widely used as a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, can reduce levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effect of simvastatin on corneal endothelial cells remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether UVB promotes the initiation of apoptosis in corneal endothelial cells and injury reversible by simvastatin treatment. Methods: We detected the cell viability, subG1 population, and caspase-3 activity. Results: Results showed that simvastatin alleviates UVB-induced cell death, cell apoptosis, and caspase-3 activity. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that simvastatin alleviated UVB-induced corneal endothelial cell apoptosis via caspase-3 activity.
  922 257 -
Toxoplasma retinitis following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide: A case report and review of literature
Arshee Ahmed, Sridharan Sudharshan, Sriram Gopal, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Jyotirmay Biswas
August 2018, 66(8):1205-1208
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_142_18  PMID:30038184
The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical toxoplasma retinochoroiditis following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection and to review the literature pertaining to toxoplasma retinochoroiditis following intravitreal injection of corticosteroid. Clinical data were collected from a 64-year-old male who developed toxoplasma retinitis 2 months after IVTA. A review of the literature was conducted to identify additional reports on similar cases. A 64-year-old male, known diabetic with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in both the eyes and optic atrophy in the left eye, presented with atypical retinitis inferior to the disc following IVTA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and serology confirmed the toxoplasma etiology, and the patient was started on anti-toxoplasma therapy along with oral corticosteroid leading to regression of the lesion by 3 months. A high index of suspicion and proper microbiological diagnosis with appropriate antimicrobial therapy can aid in the management of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis following intravitreal injection of corticosteroid.
  928 210 -
Reoperation following strabismus surgery among Medicare beneficiaries: Associations with geographic region, academic affiliation, surgeon volume, and adjustable suture technique
Michael R Christensen, Kasey Pierson, Christopher Theodore Leffler
August 2018, 66(8):1149-1153
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_18_18  PMID:30038162
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the associations of strabismus surgery reoperation rates in a large national database of provider payments with geographic region, practice type and volume, and the availability of adjustable suture technique. Methods: Fee-for-service payments to providers for medicare beneficiaries having strabismus surgery between 2012 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed to identify reoperations in the same calendar year. The adjustable-suture technique was considered to be available to the patient if the patient's surgeon billed for adjustable sutures. Predictors of reoperation in the same calendar year were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Availability of the adjustable suture technique was not associated with reoperation rate in multivariable analysis among 5971 patients having horizontal muscle surgery (odds ratio, [OR] 0.86, P = 0.29), 2840 patients having vertical muscle surgery (OR 0.98, P = 0.93), or 1199 patients having surgery with scarring or restriction (OR 0.86, P = 0.61). For horizontal surgery, the reoperation rate was higher in academic practices (OR 1.67), as compared with community practices, and in the South (OR 2.85) and West (OR 1.92, all P < 0.001). The reoperation rate was unchanged with surgeons in the lowest-quartile of surgical volume. Among surgeons paid for horizontal surgery, 45% of surgeons in the Northeast, the West, or Florida coded for adjustable sutures, compared with 8% of surgeons elsewhere (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The availability of the adjustable-suture technique was not associated with reoperation rate after strabismus surgery in this large national database. Having surgery by a lower-volume surgeon was not associated with a higher reoperation rate. The reoperation rate was higher when surgery was conducted in an academic practice, or in certain regions of the country. Adjustable sutures are largely a bicoastal practice.
  954 145 -
Smokestack leak on indocyanine green angiography in acute central serous chorioretinopathy
Apoorva Ayachit, Vinod Kumar, Nimmy Raj, Guruprasad Ayachit
August 2018, 66(8):1181-1182
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_140_18  PMID:30038170
  873 189 -
Functional success evaluation of lacrimal drainage system by dacryoscintigraphy after transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy
Yakup Aksoy, Yildiray Yildirim, Tuncay Topal, Enver Çesmeci, Yavuz Çakir
August 2018, 66(8):1161-1164
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1304_17  PMID:30038165
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional success rates using dacryoscintigraphy (DSG) after transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy (TDL-DCR). Methods: In this retrospective study, we investigated the records of 56 patients who underwent TDL-DCR for unilateral primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and anatomic patency was achieved. The lacrimal drainage systems of the other eyes of the patients were normal and were selected as control group. The functional success was evaluated with tear transit time (TT) on DSG and epiphora complaints' score (ECS) at postoperative 6 months. Results: Twenty-two (39%) of the patients were male and 34 (61%) were female, with a mean age of 46.6 (21–64). The dacryoscintigraphic findings of the operated and healthy eyes showed that there was statistically insignificant prolongation in the tear TT at the operated side at postoperative 6th month (P > 0.05). The mean ECS of operated eyes was 0.89. Functional success was achieved in 43 (76.8%) patients when the ECS of 0 and 1 was accepted as successful. A statistically significant delay in drainage was observed in DSG in all of the cases with epiphora score of 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). The tear TT was prolonged with the age increase (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference concerning the gender. Conclusion: DSG is an effective tool to evaluate the functional success of TDL-DCR.
  903 156 -
Correlation of central field index (10–2 visual field analysis) and activity limitation with increasing severity of glaucoma using glaucoma activity limitation-9 questionnaire
Ravi Daruka, Neetha I R Kuzhuppilly, Shibi Dev, Shilpa N Patil, Sandhya Rajendraprasad
August 2018, 66(8):1098-1103
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_295_18  PMID:30038150
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation between central field index (CFI) and activity limitation in glaucoma using glaucoma activity limitation-9 (GAL-9) questionnaire. Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional, noninterventional study, included 50 patients diagnosed with glaucoma, with field defect encroaching onto central 10° in Humphrey field analysis 30–2 program, in at least one eye. These patients underwent central 10–2 field analysis and CFI was calculated with the help of a calculator created by us. Patients with severe cognitive impairment were excluded and the rest completed the GAL-9 questionnaire. The data was analyzed to determine the correlation between the CFI and the GAL-9 scores. Results: There was a moderate correlation between CFI of better eye (r = −0.431, confidence interval “CI” −0.619 to −0.173, P < 0.002) and worse eye (r = −0.342, CI: −0.575 to − 0.058, P < 0.015) with GAL-9, the better eye showing a stronger correlation. Mean deviations (MD) of both better (r = −0.345, CI: −0.556 to −0.069, P < 0.014) and worse eye (r = −0.346, CI: −0.578 to −0.063 P < 0.014) showed similar moderate correlation. Vision of better eye (r = −0.398, CI: −0.577 to −0.210, P < 0.004) showed a stronger correlation with GAL-9 score than worse eye (r = −0.188, CI: −0.475 to 0.100, P < 0.192). Subscales of GAL-9 questionnaire also correlated with better eye status. “Finding dropped objects” had the strongest correlation to CFI of better eye (r = −0.676) and “adjusting to dim lights” had the weakest correlation (r = −0.052). Conclusion: The better eye status in glaucoma patients correlated better than worse eye with regard to activity limitation, signifying that the better eye has a greater influence on the quality of life and how patients perceive their disability. Furthermore, CFI showed a better correlation with GAL-9 score than MD.
  884 169 -
Chandelier-assisted retroillumination for phacoemulsification in phacovitrectomy
Manish P Nagpal, Sheetal A Mahuvakar, Pranita Prakash Chaudhary, Navneet S Mehrotra, Ashish K Jain
August 2018, 66(8):1094-1097
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_85_18  PMID:30038149
Purpose: To describe chandelier-assisted retroillumination for phacoemulsification in patients with poor fundal glow due to posterior segment pathology during combined phacovitrectomy procedure. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Thirty eyes underwent combined phacoemulsification and 25G sutureless pars plana vitrectomy. Sclerotomy port for chandelier tip was made in the inferotemporal or superonasal quadrant based on the incision site for phacoemulsification. Later, it was replaced with infusion cannula or endoilluminator. Cases included had posterior segment pathologies such as vitreous hemorrhage and vitritis. Results: Red reflex was markedly enhanced during phacoemulsification for all cases. In all eyes, a continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was achieved without the use of dye. The posterior capsule remained intact in all cases. The visual acuity in all patients improved, and the median best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 (range: 4/60–20/30) at 6 months. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusion: Cases with poor red reflex pose a challenge for anterior segment surgeons, and chandelier-assisted retroillumination proves to be a safe and effective tool in combined phacovitrectomy surgeries. Moreover, no additional cannula port is required for this chandelier insertion.
  813 185 -
Successful outcome after radiotherapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with choroidal metastasis: A case report and review of literature
Yu-Ting Hsiao, Shau-Hsuan Li, Yu-Ming Wang, Hsi-Kung Kuo
August 2018, 66(8):1215-1217
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_259_18  PMID:30038188
Choroid metastasis from esophageal carcinoma is rare; reports addressing the effectiveness of treatment strategies are limited. We report a case of a 51-year-old man with metastatic esophageal carcinoma who had a 1-month history of blurred vision in his left eye. An ophthalmologic examination revealed a choroidal mass in his left eye. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was initiated; however, visual acuity did not improve. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was initiated, resulting in near complete regression of the mass. EBRT is an effective therapeutic modality and should be considered in patients with choroidal metastasis of esophageal carcinoma.
  825 145 -
Retrospective study of changes in ocular coherence tomography characteristics after failed macular hole surgery and outcomes of fluid-gas exchange for persistent macular hole
MY Vishal, Naresh Babu, Piyush Kohli, Anand Rajendran, Kim Ramasamy
August 2018, 66(8):1130-1135
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1119_17  PMID:30038157
Purpose: The aim is to study the changes in ocular coherence tomography (OCT) parameters of large (≥400 μ) full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) after a failed surgery and evaluate the outcome of fluid-gas exchange (FGE) in the treatment of persistent macular hole and role of OCT in predicting outcome after the secondary intervention. Methods: Changes occurring in the OCT parameters of FTMH after a failed vitrectomy were evaluated. FGE was done in an operating room with three pars plana sclerostomy ports. The anatomical and functional outcomes of FGE for these persistent macular holes were also assessed. Anatomical closure was defined as the flattening of the hole with resolution of subretinal cuff of fluid. Anatomical success after FGE was defined as flattening of macular hole with the resolution of subretinal cuff of fluid and neurosensory retina completely covering the fovea. Functional success was defined as an improvement of at least one line of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results: Twenty-eight eyes (28 patients) were included in the study. After the failed vitrectomy, OCT showed an increase in the base diameter, opening diameter, and height of the hole. After the secondary procedure, anatomical closure was achieved in 89.3% eyes. Mean BCVA improved from logMAR 0.88 ± 0.24 (20/152) to logMAR 0.66 ± 0.24 (20/91) (P < 0.001). Eight (28.6%) patients achieved final BCVA ≥20/60. Functional success was obtained in 19 patients (67.9%). There was no association between anatomical success after FGE and any of the pre-FGE OCT parameters or indices. Conclusion: Unsuccessful surgery causes swelling of the outer and middle retinal layers with retraction of inner layers of the retina. Performing FGE while visualizing the retina is a good option for the treatment of large persistent macular holes as it causes complete drying of the macula, better success rates, and a reduced complication rate. Pre-FGE OCT does not help in predicting the outcome of FGE for persistent macular hole.
  752 199 -
Determinants of medication adherence to topical ocular hypotensives and application of health belief model among glaucoma patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in coastal Karnataka, India
Soujanya Kaup, Sithara Sara Oomman, Siddharudha Shivalli
August 2018, 66(8):1229-1230
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_80_18  PMID:30038195
  772 163 -
A rare case of Lecythophora endogenous endophthalmitis: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenge
Mohit Dogra, Deepika Dhingra, Surya Prakash Sharma, Reema Bansal
August 2018, 66(8):1203-1205
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_181_18  PMID:30038183
Fungal endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) secondary to contaminated intravenous fluid infusion is frequently seen in developing countries. Molds and yeasts are commonly implicated as the causative agents. Dematiaceous fungi such as Lecythophora have been linked to exogenous endophthalmitis but have never been reported to cause EE. We report a case of Lecythophora EE that was successfully managed with pars plana vitrectomy along with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole. Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a potentially devastating intraocular infection caused by intraocular spread of pathogens through blood stream. It generally accounts for 2%–16% of all reported endophthalmitis cases.[1] Predisposing risk factors include diabetes mellitus, malignancies, intravenous drug use, organ abscess, immunosuppressive therapy, indwelling catheters, urinary tract infection, organ transplant, end-stage renal or liver disease, and endocarditis.[2] It may occur in patients with no overt signs of systemic infection, particularly in the setting of contaminated intravenous fluid infusion in a rural setting.[3] Among the three broad categories of pathogens responsible for EE-bacteria, yeast, and molds, cases caused by molds are most infrequent and have the worst outcomes.[4] While Candida and Aspergillus are the most common species among fungal causes of EE, Lecythophora has been rarely reported as a cause of endophthalmitis due to exogenous causes.[5],[6],[7],[8] We, herein, report a case of EE caused by Lecythophora species.
  765 162 -
Multimodal imaging of torpedo-shaped fundus lesions: New insights
Shreyans Jain, Devesh Kumawat, Vinod Kumar
August 2018, 66(8):1211-1213
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_118_18  PMID:30038186
The purpose of this case series is to describe the varied presentation of Torpedo lesions of the fundus and multimodal imaging features in three eyes of three patients. Two patients presented with typical topography, i.e., temporal to the fovea. One patient revealed lesion inferonasal to disc with the head pointing toward the disc. All three patients had an attenuation of outer retinal layers on optical coherence tomography. One patient showed an additional large subretinal cleft. Variable hypoautofluorescence in the area of the torpedo was noted. To conclude torpedo lesions can present at atypical locations, have both retinal and choroidal atrophy and head point toward the optic disc.
  759 154 -
Postoperative endophthalmitis due to Pseudomonas luteola: First reported case of acute and virulent presentation from a tertiary eye care center in South India
Anmol U Naik, V Jaya Prakash, Pradeep Susvar, K Lily Therese, CK Parameswari
August 2018, 66(8):1200-1202
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_242_18  PMID:30038182
A 60-year-old male presented with pain and decreased vision 3 weeks following uneventful intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior vitrectomy for subluxated cataract. A diagnosis of acute endophthalmitis was made based on clinical and ultrasound features. Patient improved only after undergoing pars plana vitrectomies twice and repeated intravitreal antibiotic-steroid injections. Vitreous aspirate revealed Gram-negative bacillus identified as Pseudomonas luteola on culture. Patient returned with a retinal detachment at first follow-up which was treated with vitrectomy, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of P. luteola causing acute onset, virulent endophthalmitis reported in literature.
  773 131 -
Scheimpflug imaging of acute myopia secondary to topiramate use
Pawan Prasher, Sujan Singh
August 2018, 66(8):1179-1180
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_208_18  PMID:30038169
  720 179 -
Feasibility and safety of vitrectomy under topical anesthesia in an office-based setting
Gloria Paulina Trujillo-Sanchez, Alejandro Gonzalez-De La Rosa, Jose Navarro-Partida, Luis Haro-Morlett, Juan Carlos Altamirano-Vallejo, Arturo Santos
August 2018, 66(8):1136-1140
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_289_18  PMID:30038158
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of office-based vitreoretinal procedures. Methods: Patients undergoing primary elective pars plana vitrectomy were elected for surgery in an office-based setting (performed in a minor procedure room under topical anesthesia [TA] and oral anxiolysis). Rates of surgical objective achievement, surgical timing, and comfort were recorded to evaluate feasibility. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events were assessed to evaluate safety. Results: Office-based vitrectomy surgery was performed in 34 eyes of 30 patients. The mean surgical time was 12.351 ± 8.21 min. Surgical objectives were achieved in 100% of cases. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improvement was 9.08 letters (P < 0.0001). During most parts of the procedure, no patient reported pain or discomfort. Neither intraoperative nor postoperative adverse events were reported until the final follow-up visit. Conclusion: Office-based vitreoretinal procedures under TA could be as feasible and as safe as vitreoretinal procedures under conventional anesthesia.
  733 150 -
Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis
Nitin Kumar Menia, Swati Kiran, Reema Bansal
August 2018, 66(8):1195-1195
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_49_18  PMID:30038179
  698 184 -
Bilateral lens coloboma associated with Marfan syndrome
Gaurav Gupta, Parul Goyal, Chintan Malhotra, Arun Kumar Jain
August 2018, 66(8):1192-1192
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_542_18  PMID:30038176
  711 167 -
Pritam Madhukar Bawankar, Tatyarao Lahane, Ragini Parekh
August 2018, 66(8):1191-1191
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_323_18  PMID:30038175
  669 160 -
Intraocular cilia
Jitender Jinagal, Parul Chawla Gupta, Jagat Ram
August 2018, 66(8):1193-1193
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_487_18  PMID:30038177
  683 143 -
Endoilluminator-assisted pediatric cataract surgery with hazy cornea
Jyoti Himanshu Matalia, Vimal Krishna Rajput, Himanshu Matalia, Bhujang K Shetty
August 2018, 66(8):1198-1200
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1180_17  PMID:30038181
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of endoilluminator in pediatric cataract with hazy corneas. We describe a series of three cases of pediatric cataract where visualization of intraocular structures was inadequate under the operating microscope. The endoilluminator was held at the limbus with light directed obliquely to visualize the details of intraocular structures against the hazy cornea using oblique illumination. It allowed structures behind the hazy cornea to be seen with ease. A simple modification in surgical procedure of pediatric cataract using an endoilluminator helps in better visualization of intraocular structures in difficult situations.
  700 113 -
Commentary: Inner retinal excavation in torpedo maculopathy and proposed type 3 lesions in optical coherence tomography
Koushik Tripathy, Barsha Sarma, Shahana Mazumdar
August 2018, 66(8):1213-1214
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_656_18  PMID:30038187
  674 128 -
Observer variation in quantitative assessment of retinal shortening with ultrasound in patients of total rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
Brijesh Takkar, Nripen Gaur, Hameed Obedulla, Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Shreyas Temkar, Pradeep Venkatesh, Rohan Chawla, Atul Kumar
August 2018, 66(8):1115-1118
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_186_18  PMID:30038154
Purpose: To evaluate the interobserver variation in the assessment of retinal length to choroidal length ratio (RCR) as a marker for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: This was a double-masked, prospective study at a tertiary center. Ultrasound was used to calculate RCR in 50 eyes with total RRD by two observers. Both observers were trained after the first round of calculations, and all the calculations were repeated as before. Difference between the RCR values was stratified into four categories (<0.01, 0.01–0.05, 0.06–0.1, and >0.1) for descriptive analysis. A difference of 0.05 was set as the maximal limit for defining interobserver agreement. Correlation between RCR and interobserver difference was assessed. Results: The mean interobserver difference in RCR values was found to be 0.06 ± 0.0 (P = 0.41) and was reduced to 0.04 ± 0.02 (P = 0.81) following training. The interobserver difference was <0.1 in 82% of the cases before training and in 98% of cases after training. The worst interobserver agreement was noted in cases with RCR < 0.8, and there was a good negative correlation between RCR and interobserver difference (r = −0.6, P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: There is good interobserver agreement in assessing RCR with ultrasound in eyes with RRD, which improves further with training. RCR needs careful assessment in eyes with very low RCR. This technique may be useful in prognostication of surgical outcomes in cases with advanced PVR.
  652 147 -
Commentary: Smoke stack leak on indocyanine green angiography in acute central serous chorioretinopathy
Chitaranjan Mishra
August 2018, 66(8):1183-1183
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_606_18  PMID:30038171
  664 118 -
Commentary: Reoperation following strabismus surgery among Medicare beneficiaries: Associations with geographic region, academic affiliation, surgeon volume, and adjustable suture technique - Operations again! What lessons do we gain?
Pradeep Sharma, Nripen Gaur
August 2018, 66(8):1154-1155
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_949_18  PMID:30038163
  653 114 -
Primary graft failure after big bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in macular corneal dystrophy
Sunita Chaurasia, Muralidhar Ramappa, Somasheila Murthy, Prashant Garg
August 2018, 66(8):1196-1197
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_220_18  PMID:30038180
Macular corneal dystrophy is autosomal recessive dystrophy characterized by deposits of abnormal glycosaminoglycans in stromal lamellae and within endothelial cells. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is successful in the management of this dystrophy. We herein describe three cases of primary graft failure after uneventful big bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for macular corneal dystrophy.
  627 135 -
Commentary: Long-term efficacy and safety of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Atul Kumar, Vineet Mutha, Dheepak M Sundar
August 2018, 66(8):1128-1129
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_529_18  PMID:30038156
  628 131 -
Commentary: Posterior scleritis: Nuances to discern and handle effectively!
S Bala Murugan
August 2018, 66(8):1113-1114
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_639_18  PMID:30038153
  584 171 -
Rubric for assessment of eye bank professionals for eye retrieval: A new tool and a step toward standardizing eye retrieval process
Manisha Acharya, Javed Hussain Farooqui, Umang Mathur
August 2018, 66(8):1225-1227
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_357_18  PMID:30038192
  624 122 -
Multiple small branch retinal arteriolar occlusions following coil embolization of an internal carotid artery aneurysm
Seong Hwan Shin, Sung Pyo Park, Yong-Kyu Kim
August 2018, 66(8):1208-1210
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_313_18  PMID:30038185
A 41-year-old male was referred from the neurosurgery department with visual disturbance immediately following coil embolization of a distal internal carotid artery aneurysm. On initial fundus examination, diffuse retinal opacification sparing the papillomacular bundle area was observed in his right eye. Optical coherence tomography showed inner retinal edema, and fluorescein angiography showed delayed arterial filling and multiple small arteriolar obstructions in that eye. After 2 weeks, although the inner retinal edema and retinal opacification improved, small arteriolar occlusions were still present. The small arteriolar occlusion-related perfusion defect persisted until the 6-month follow-up. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the possibility of iatrogenic retinal artery occlusion when they perform coil embolization. Moreover, long-term follow-up may be necessary to detect any ischemic complications, as these postprocedural retinal artery occlusions tend to be poorly reperfused.
  601 131 -
Commentary: Modified sewing machine technique: An innovative method for the management of iridodialysis, iris coloboma, and scleral fixation of intraocular lenses
Suresh K Pandey, Vidushi Sharma
August 2018, 66(8):1177-1178
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_731_18  PMID:30038168
  602 122 -
Comparison of central corneal thickness measurement with Sirius Topographer and Nidek Axial Length Scan
Tarannum Mansoori
August 2018, 66(8):1228-1229
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_431_18  PMID:30038194
  575 125 -
Artifact in swept source optical coherence tomography due to silicone oil
Sumit Randhir Singh, Jay Chhablani
August 2018, 66(8):1184-1185
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_243_18  PMID:30038172
  550 147 -
Planning a new intraocular lens library in the Indian scenario
Gunjan Saluja, Brijesh Takkar, Esha Agarwal, Bhavana Sharma, Sudarshan Khokhar
August 2018, 66(8):1227-1228
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_634_18  PMID:30038193
  588 105 -
Commentary: Office-based vitrectomy using topical anesthesia in an Indian setting
Ashwin Mohan, Ramesh Venkatesh
August 2018, 66(8):1141-1142
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_792_18  PMID:30038159
  568 122 -
Response to comment on: A rare case of unilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation
Guruprasad Ayachit, Apoorva Ayachit, Shrinivas Joshi, VV Sameera
August 2018, 66(8):1231-1231
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_814_18  PMID:30038197
  591 97 -
Commentary: Should we restrict vision screening in primary school children?
Rohit C Khanna
August 2018, 66(8):1224-1224
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1028_18  PMID:30038191
  571 112 -
Retinal incarceration in the needle perforation track
Vinod Kumar, Prasad N Gupta, Marem C Christy, Shorya V Azad
August 2018, 66(8):1194-1194
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_517_18  PMID:30038178
  548 133 -
Comment on: A rare case of unilateral diffuse melanocytic proliferation
Mohit Dogra, Simar Rajan Singh, Ramandeep Singh, Mangat Ram Dogra
August 2018, 66(8):1230-1230
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_565_18  PMID:30038196
  507 106 -
Commentary: Evolution of Vitrectomy as Day Care Procedure
Kalpana Nagaraj Badami
August 2018, 66(8):1143-1143
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1098_18  PMID:30038160
  445 91 -