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Year : 1965  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 114-116

Rhinosporidiosis of the conjunctiva

Department of Pathology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, India

Date of Web Publication22-Feb-2008

Correspondence Address:
M A Hafeez
Department of Pathology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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How to cite this article:
Hafeez M A, Tandon P L. Rhinosporidiosis of the conjunctiva. Indian J Ophthalmol 1965;13:114-6

How to cite this URL:
Hafeez M A, Tandon P L. Rhinosporidiosis of the conjunctiva. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1965 [cited 2022 May 24];13:114-6. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1965/13/3/114/39229

India and Ceylon are endemic countries for Rhinosporidiosis. A number of cases reported particularly from the United States, puts Northern America also on the geographical map of Rhinosporidiosis.

Rhinosporidiosis, a chronic granulo­matous conditions was originally thought to be due to a protozoon, but later it was found to be caused by the fungus "Rhinosporidiosis" the culti­vation of which has not been possible. The fungus originaly seen by Malbran in 1812 was described by Seeber in 1900 and named by Ashworth in 1923 as "Rhinosporodiosis Seeberi". From India O'Kinealy reported the first case in 1903.

The fungus was originally thought to affect the mucous membrane of the nares but it is now known that Rhinos­pridiosis at times may affect struc­tures like ocular tissue, lips, skin, rectum, urethra, nasopharynx and larynx. Certain cases are on record where the involvement has been gene­ralised. Rajam et. al. (1955) reported one case with visceral involvement. Agarwal et al (1959) have reported a case of generalised rhinosporidiosis.

Certain cases of ocular involvement have been reported by various authors and sporadic reports are seen appear­ing in literature. The case reported by Agarwal et al (1959) of generalized rhinosporidiosis showed ocular in­volvement. In 1958 Sharma et al, re­ported a case of ocular involvement with rhinosporidiosis which presented a tumour like appearance of the eye lids. Sharma et al 1962 have reported 4 cases of ocular involvement in their series of 57 cases. Shrinivas Rao (1962) has reported a case of ocular involvement with rhinosporidiosis. Sengupta et al (1958) have reported two cases of rhinosporidiosis of palpebra conjunctivae.

In the present communication we present a case of rhinospirodosis showing involvement of palpebral conjunctiva.

  Case Report Top

V.L. an 18 year old male patient at­tended the out patient department in January 1963 for defective vision, irri­tation of the eye and feeling of foreign body in the left eye. The total duration of the complaints was 2 months only.

On examination a small nodule was felt in the upper eye lid of the left eye. The conjunctival surface showed an ulcerated, rather fungating nodule about a half cm. in diameter. A cli­nical diagnosis of fungating chalazion was made. A piece of the fungating growth measuring about 5 mm. in size was excised.

Post operative period was unevent­ful.

Microscopic: Microsection showed a large number of sporangia of vari­able diameters with double walled contours with a variable number of spores contained inside. The remain­ing tissue showed features of chronic inflammation. Histological diagnosis of ocular rhinosporidiosis was made.

  Discussion Top

Rhinosporidiosis which is endemic in India is more common in South India and eastern provinces in the deltas of big rivers. In Madhya Pra­desh it is more common in the Chhatis­garh Division. It is probably because of moist climate and poor hygienic conditions. In central India (Bhopal area) rhinosporidiosis is comparatively less common. Ocular involvement is an uncommon sequel. In the eye, con­juctiva, lacrimal sac, eye lids and the sclera are the structures involved. Ocular involvement constitutes ap­proximately 5% incidence in rhinos­poridiosis. Allen and Dave (1936) found 4 cases of ocular involvement out of 60. Purandre and Deoras (1958) found 5 cases out of 100 whereas Sharma et al 1962 found 4 cases of ocular involvement out of a total of 57 cases. In the eye the involvement of conjuctiva is quite common. Elles (1941) reported conjunctival involve­ment in 22 out of 25 cases of ocular involvement. All the 4 cases reported by Allen and Dave (1936) involved conjuctiva. 3 cases out of 5 ocular involvement showed affection of con­juctiva (Purandre and Deoras 1953). Out of 25 cases of ocular involvement, conjuctiva was affected in 16 in the series of Kuriakose 1963. Sengupta et al (1958) remark that conjuctival lesions appear as polypoidal masses of granulation tissue which may have creamy coloured discharge from the surface. The lesions are cystic. The cysts may sometimes burst discharging the spores, onto the surface.

Under such circumstances, we must add, a smear examination will help the diagnosis in suspected cases. Srinivas Rao presented a single case of conjunctival involvement. Since 1957 we have received 10 cases of rhinosporidiosis of which one involved the conjunetiva. As yet no explanation is available for a definite predilection of males. Our patient showed conjuctival rhinosporidiosis and is a male.

Our thanks are due to Dr. Ram Singh for his help in photography.

  Summary Top

A case report of Rhinosporidiosis of conjuctiva is presented.[10]

  References Top

Agarwal S.. Sharma K.D. and Shri­vastava J. B. (1953), Arch. Derm.- 80:22.  Back to cited text no. 1
Allen F.R.W.K. and Dave M. (1963), Ind. Med. Gaz. 71:376.  Back to cited text no. 2
Elles N. B. (1941) Quoted by Sharma K.D. 1958. Brit. Jr. Ophthal. 42:572.  Back to cited text no. 3
Kuriakose E. T. 1963. Brit. Jr. Ophthal. 47:346.  Back to cited text no. 4
Purandre N. M. and Deoras S. M. (1953), Ind. Jr. Med. Sc. 7:603.  Back to cited text no. 5
Rajam R. V.. Vishwanathan G. S.. Rao A. R. Rangiah P. N. and Anguli V. C. (1955). Ind Jr. Surg. 17:269.  Back to cited text no. 6
Sengupta. M.. Mitra B. K. and Sarkar P. K. (1958). Jr. All. Ind. Ophth. Soc.. 6:2, 39.  Back to cited text no. 7
Sharma K. D. Junnarkar R. V. and Agarwal S. (1962). Jr. Ind. Med. Assn. 38:640.  Back to cited text no. 8
Sharma K, D. Srivastava J. B. and Agarwal S. (1958). Brit. Jr. Ophthal. 42:572.  Back to cited text no. 9
Srinivas Rao (1962). J. Ind. Med. Assn. 39:601.  Back to cited text no. 10


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