|Year : 1968 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 29-31
Congenital primary aphakia with retinal dysplasia and heart defect
PA Lamba, NN Sood
Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry-6, India
|Date of Web Publication||22-Dec-2007|
P A Lamba
Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry-6
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Lamba P A, Sood N N. Congenital primary aphakia with retinal dysplasia and heart defect. Indian J Ophthalmol 1968;16:29-31
|How to cite this URL:|
Lamba P A, Sood N N. Congenital primary aphakia with retinal dysplasia and heart defect. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1968 [cited 2021 Apr 22];16:29-31. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1968/16/1/29/37490
Congenital aphakia is an extremely rare condition and still rarer is the condition of primary aphakia which is clue to a failure of its development. The picture has to be differentiated from secondary aphakia or pseudo aphakia which is the result of disappearance of a part or whole of the lens as a result of degeneration or absorption.
The first case report was by BAKER  . From time to time cases have been reported clinically but have not been verified by better diagnostic procedures. Most of such cases had other serious congenital defects like microphthalmos, microcornea, irideremia, correctopia, corneal opacities involving the whole thickness, nystagmus and persistant hyperplastic vitreous.
It is still an open question whether true congenital complete absence of lens and its capsule can occur in an otherwise normal or nearly normal eye. MANN  thinks it possible, because she accidentally discovered bilateral aphakia in a human embryo at 13 mm stage wherein the development was relatively normal except that the only trace of the lens was a slight thickening of surface ectoderm which never invaginated or separated. The condition has also been seen occurring spontaneously in animals like amblystoma embryo and. pig.
The purpose of this presentation is to report a rare case of congenital primary aphakia with other unusual congenital abnormalities like facial asymmetry, retinal aplasia and presence of congenital heart disease (Parent Ductus Arteriosus).
| Case report|| |
A. U. 40 years male presented in the Ophthalmic O.P.D. of JIPMER Hospital in March, 1967 with to complaints of defective vision in the right eve since childhood and hardness of hearing especially from the right ear. There was no history of febrile illness in the past. There was no history of trauma or operation on the right eye.
General Physical Examination:
Moderately nourished and poorly built, mentally he was subnormal with an I.Q. between 50-80. He showed an asymmetrical face because of underdevelopment of right orbit and right half of the face. E.N.T. check up showed evidence of perceptive deafness on both sides. Cardiovascular system examination showed evidence of enlarged heart with auscultatory findings suggestive of congenital heart defect (Patent Duetus Arteriosus).
In addition to the facial asymmetry, the patient exhibited a horizontal nystagmus.
The eve ball was small in size. The cornea measured 6 mm. in the vertical meridian and 8 mm. in the horizontal. It was transparent, with no vascularisation or haziness in any part. The anterior chamber was shallow. The pupil was round, small and reacted well to light. The iris showed iridodonesis. A jet black reflex was seen from the pupillary area. No part of the lens could be seen. No residual membrane was seen in the pupillary area even on slit lamp examination.
Vision:- Finger counting at 6". Perception and projection of light was accurate from all quadrants. Refraction was +20. D in the horizontal meridian and +21.0 D in the vertical meridian. Maximal visual improvement was 6/60 with + 19.0 D. Sph.
Fundus Examination: Media were clear. The disc was small and hypermetropic. Blood vessels slightly attenuated. The whole of the retina including macula gave an appearance suggestive of abiotrophy without much of pigmentary disturbances. No ramnants of Cloquet's canal or lenticular material were seen during ophthalmoscopy.
The cornea was smaller than normal (8 mm. diameter). It had maintained its lustre and transparency. The anterior chamber was shallow but regular. The pupil was round and reacted weakly to light. The lens was present in the pupillary area. Unaided vision was 6/60. Refraction was + 13.0 D in both meridians and he improved to 6/18 with glasses (+12.0 D Sph.)
Fundus Examination: Media were clear. It was a hypermetropic fundus with evidence of retinal degeneration.
Blood V.D.R.L.:- Negative.
X-Ray Skull:- was normal. No bony lesion was seen.
X-Ray Chest-Heart size was enlarged and showed signs of left ventricular hypertrophy.
| Comments|| |
Many cases of congenital aphakia have been reported in the literature.
When describing such cases no comments have been made about primary or secondary nature of aphakia. TOUFESCO  critically surveyed 15 reported cases of congenital aphakia till 1904. Remarkably, 13 cases showed ramnants of absorbed lens in malformed eyes with colobomata or microphthalmia. This reflects on the rarity of primary congenital aphakia. The secondary type of congenital aphakia usually follows absorption of a part or whole of the lens. The eye may be microphthalmic and pathologically is characterised by the presence of papillary membrane and persistence of tunica vasculosa lentis (WOLTER AND PETROHELOS  RINTELEN AND STAUFFENGGER.  )
Many cases of apparently primary aphakia with and without extreme deformites of the globe have been reported (DUKE ELDER  ), but no microscopic examinations were undertaken and their true nature is difficult to substantiate.
GRATIOT reported a 30 year old man with history of poor vision since birth. The patient exhibited iridodonesis, nystagmus, displacement of pupil and aphakia in both eyes.
SEZER  described connatal aphakia with iridodonesis and hyperopia of + 13 dioptres in otherwise normal eyes of a 12 year old girl. There were no ramnants of pupillary membrane or lens or lens capsule. MANSCHOT  commented that not more than 5 cases of primary aphakia have been described. He described the condition in a prematurely born female child who died soon after birth. The ocular examination showed a microphthalmia with colobomata and retinal dysplasia.
Our case differs from the earlier clinical observations of occurrence of microphthaltnos with congenital aphakia. It does show that eyes without lens can obviously develop to about their normal shape and size. Not only that; inspite of a high hypermetropia (+20 D) and retinal dysplasia, the patient may still retain some useful vision. Naturally the question of enucleation and histopathological study did not arise.
Our case on cardiovascular examination showed evidence suggestive of patent ductus arteriosus. The only case recorded in literature showing congenital cardiac anomaly was by MANSCHOT  . A patent foramen ovale and ventricular septal defect was demonstrated on post mortem examination. In addition our patient showed mental retradation (I.Q. 5080), hemifacial atrophy on the right side and preceptive deafness on both sides. Similar observations have not been recorded in literature so far.
Discussing the genesis, VOGT  thought that primary aphakia is probably due to an aplasia or hypoplasia of the lens following some hindrance in the detachment of lens vesicle. FISHER  held the view that the condition is the result of anomalous invagination of the optic vesicle which interferes with the normal relationship between optic vesicle and surface ectoderm which is conditional for the development of lens vesicle and also prevents the development of the other tissues of anterior segment. McKEEHAN  showed by experimental evidences that it is not contact between the neuro and surface ectoderm which is essential for induction of lens plate but it is primarily a chemical induction by the diffusible agents (? metabolites/ chemicals) produced by the neuroectoderm. The present case supports the theory of chemical induction, in view of the absence of other congenital abnormalities of the anterior segment and that a maldifferentiated neuroectoderm may not be capable of producing the essential chemical agents.
It may be added that great care must be excercised in making a diagnosis of primary absence of lens.
| Summary|| |
A rare case of unilateral primary congenital aphakia has been described in an adult of 40 years. The affected eye showed a micro cornea with aplasia of retina but retained a vision of 6/60 with glasses. Other unusual associated congenital abnormalities were facial asymmetry, perceptive deafness and congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus). The genesis of the ocular condition has been discussed and is probably the result of failure of chemical induction.
| References|| |
BAKER, AV. It.: N. Y. Med. J. 46. 595 (1887) Cited by Duke Elder.
DUKE-ELDER. S.: System of Ophthalmologv. Vol. III P. H, p. 688. C. V. Moshy London (1964).
FISHER, F.: Abnomal Ciliary-body anlage in a Mikrophthalmic Eye (German.v. Graefe. Arch. Ophthal 132, 71, (19:34).
McKEEHAN, AI. S.: Induction of Portions of the Chick lens without contact in the Optic cup. Anat. flee., 132, 297, (1958).
MANN, IDA C.: Congenital absence of the lens with special reference to an Aphakic Human Embryo. Brit. J. Ophthal. 5, 301, (1921).
MANSCHOT. W. A.: Primary Congenital Aphakia, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal (Chicago) 69. 571-577, (1963).
SEZER N.: Congenital Aphakia (Turkish) Oto-Noro-Oftalmojoli (Turk) 2, 43 (1947) Ref. Klin. MN. Augenheilk 117, 428 (1950).
TOUFESCO, S.: Note on congenital aphakia (French) Ann. Oculist (Paris) 132, 107-117 (1904).
VOGT., A.: Aplasia and Hypoplasia Lentis (German) Klin. Mbl.. Augenheilk, 87, 257 (1931).
WOLTER, J. R. AND PETROHELOS, M.A.: Congenital Aphakia. Amer. J. Ophthal. 49, 945-953, (1960).
RINTELEN, F. AND STAUFFERNGER, U.: v. Graefe's Arch. Ophthal., 159, 411, (1957).