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ARTICLES
Year : 1979  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 107-108

Effect of age on refraction, intra-ocular pressure, facility of aqueous outflow and scleral rigidity


Charitable Eye Hospital, Agra, India

Correspondence Address:
P Avasthi
Director, Charitable Eye Hospital, Agra
India
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How to cite this article:
Avasthi P, Ahmed G, Mital S, Anand N. Effect of age on refraction, intra-ocular pressure, facility of aqueous outflow and scleral rigidity. Indian J Ophthalmol 1979;27:107-8

How to cite this URL:
Avasthi P, Ahmed G, Mital S, Anand N. Effect of age on refraction, intra-ocular pressure, facility of aqueous outflow and scleral rigidity. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1979 [cited 2020 Nov 24];27:107-8. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1979/27/4/107/32592

The senile changes in the eye are usually seen after 40 years of age in India. The func­tions of the eye may be impaired due to these changes, some of which are correctable while others are not. With advancing age the most dreadful change which affects the eye is slow and intermittent rise of intraocular pressure.

There is no specific documentation in the literature showing the effect of age and its correlation to scleral rigidity, facility of aqueous outflow, intraocular pressure and refractive error. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of senile changes in eye.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, S.N. medical college, Agra. The cases were picked up from the eye O.P.D. They were divided into two groups:

Control group

This group consists of patients below 40 years of age having no pathology in the eye. Seventy four eyes

of 37 patients were studied.

Study group

This group consists of patients above 40 years of age. One hundred and twenty four eyes of 62 patients were studied.

A thorough clinical examination was done; the refraction, tonometry, scleral rigidity and facility of aqueous outflow were carried out on each eye. Eyes with astigmatic error and having any pathology were dropped from this study.


  Observations and comments Top


198 eyes of 99 patients were examined, 74 eyes belonging to control group and 124 eyes belonging to study group. The eyes which had myopia or hypermetropia of more than 3.0 D. were not considered for the sake of uniformity; therefore, it was easier to compare the findings of these eyes.

Control group consisted of 23 males and 14 females and study group 32 males and 30 females. In control group out of 37 patients, 19 were myopic, 15 hypermetropic and 3 emmetropic; while in study group, out of 51 patients, 16 were myopic 18 hypermetropic and 17 emmetropic.

In the control group patients of 10 to 20 years age, scleral rigidity was 0.010 to 0.019, with average 0.0145. Introcular pressue 14 to 18 mm. of Hg. Facility of aqueous outflow on an average was 0.32.

In the age group of 21 to 30, the average scleral rigidity was 0.019. Intraocular pressure on an average of 18 mm of Hg. Facility of aqueous outflow was 0.29.

In the study group patients between 50 to 60 years of age, the scleral rigidity varied from 0.039 to 0.020 in which 4 eyes had myopia, 16 eyes hypermetropia and 20 eyes emmetropia. The facility of aqueous outflow varied from 0.19 to 0.10 and average was 0.14. Intraocular pressure varied from 14 to 26 mm of Hg. on average 20 mm of Hg. Patients between 61 to 70 years of age, scleral rigidity varied from .039-.030, on an average of 0.034. Average facility of aqueous outflow was 0.14. Maximum intraocular pressure in this age group was on an average of 24.5 mm of Hg.

In the study group, there is an apparent rise of co-efficient of scleral rigidity over 40 years of age. It has been found that in myopic cases the highest mean scleral rigidity was 0.020 and minimum recorded was 0.010. These eyes showed a decreased scleral rigidity.

This study has established that the average facility of aqueous outflow decreases with advancing age. The average outflow of aqueous in the age group of 10 to 20 years was 0.32, while in patients in the age group of above 50 years was 0.14.

In this study the mean intraocular pressure in emmetropic eye is higher i.e. 19.4 mm of Hg. The average intraocular pressure reading in hypermetropic eyes was higher than myopic eyes.

It is concluded that mean scleral rigidity in patients below 40 years of age were 0.0208. There was a remarkable rise in scleral rigidity in patients above 40 years of age. The average was 0.029. The scleral rigidity increases as the age advances. The myopic eyes showed signi­ficant decrease in scleral rigidity, while hyper­metropic eyes had increased scleral rigidity. The facility of aqueous outflow was inversely proportional to age.

It is evident from this study that the reading from the Schiotz tonometer will give correct value of intraocular pressure in people below 40 years of age. However, it can not be relied upon in persons above 40 years, myopics and hypermetropics as it will give wrong impression. The refraction as well as the age of the person is very necessary before the eye is decided to be glaucomatous.


  Summary and Conclusions Top


198 eyes examined; 74 belonging to control group and 124 to study group. Their intra­ocular pressure, facility of aqueous outflow and scleral rigidity were studied. It has-been observ­ed that advancing age has got an effect on intra­ocular pressure, facility of aqueous outflow and scleral rigidity.




 

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