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ARTICLES
Year : 1979  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 210-211

Further studies of electro-ocuiographic responses from diabetics and pre-diabetics


Armed Forces Medical College, Poona, India

Correspondence Address:
A B Das
Department of Ophthalmology, Armed Forces Med. College, Poona-1
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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How to cite this article:
Das A B, Basu S K, Saxena S P, Raghavan V. Further studies of electro-ocuiographic responses from diabetics and pre-diabetics. Indian J Ophthalmol 1979;27:210-1

How to cite this URL:
Das A B, Basu S K, Saxena S P, Raghavan V. Further studies of electro-ocuiographic responses from diabetics and pre-diabetics. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1979 [cited 2020 Nov 29];27:210-1. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1979/27/4/210/32633

Table 1

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Table 1

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The necessity for study of E.O.G. responses from diabetics and their offspring was felt while recording EOG in normal and pathological eyes. It was observed[1] that the low EOG ratio in certain diabetics and pre-diabetics did not depend on the vascular retinopathic changes and thus needed further investigation. A preli­minary report[2] on EOG responses in diabetes mellitus has been presented earlier and the present paper examines this aspect in more details. In the present study, an attempt has been made to record EOG responses from diabetics who showed simple retinopathic changes and those who did not show any obvious changes in the retina and from those who were suspected to be pre-diabetics. In this study, the pre-diabetic subjects were those whose both parents were diabetics. Besides recording EOG responses from the eye of the diabetics and pre-diabetics, some of them were subjected to fluorescein angiography and from few of them basement membrane thickening of the quadriceps muscle capillaries was determined by electron-microscopy.


  Materials Top


Fifty (50) diabetics without any retinopathic changes (Group I). Twenty (20) diabetics with simple retino­pathic changes (Group II) and 10 pre-diabetics (Group III) were included in this study.

From among 50 diabetics without any retinopathy (Group I) LOG responses were recorded from 98 eyes. Fluorescein angiographs were taken from 24 eyes and 4 were subjected to electromicroscopic studies of base­ment membrane of quadriceps muscle capillaries.

From among 20 diabetics (Group II) who showed obvious simple retinopatbic chages, FOG responses could be recorded from 39 eyes- Fluorescein angio­grophs were taken from 6 eyes, and 4 patients were subjected to electron-microscopic studies of the basement membrane of the quadriceps muscle capillaries.

From among 10 pre-diabetics (Group III), LOG responses could be recorded from 18 eyes and fluorescein angiogtaphs were taken from 3 eyes and from 2 subjects quadriceps muscle capillary basement membrane thick­ness was studied on electron microscope.


  Methods Top


LOG responses were recorded by junction box improvised to take the recording in an ECG Machine. The method of recording LOG has been described else­where[3]. Fluorescein angiography was done by injecting 5 to 10 cc of 10% fluorescein into the antecubital vein of the subject and photographs were taken with Kowa fluorescien fundus camera.

Electron-microscope studies were carried out in the electron-microscope cell of the department of pathology Armed forces Medical College, Poona.

Results

98 eyes of diabetics without any retinopathy (Group 1) from whom LOG response could be recorded, 30 eyes gave low FOG ratio [Table - 1]. The fluorescein angiographs were taken from 24 eyes and 3 eyes revealed evidence of micro-aneurysms, which had not been earlier detected by ophthalmoscopic examination. Co-relating these with LOG responses, it was seen that only one such patient gave low LOG response. Whereas from among 21 eyes which on fluorescein angiography did not show any obvious vascular pathology, 11 eyes gave low FOG response From the 4 patients who were subjects to quadriceps muscle capillary basement mem­brane study, 2 of the low EOG responders showed muscle capillary basement membrane thickening.

From 39 eyes of diabetics (Group 11) who had shown obvious simple retinopathic changes low EOG res­ponses could be recorded from 13 eyes. Fluorescein angiographs were taken from 6 eyes and all of these eyes showed evidence of microaneurysms and other vascular pathology. Co-relating these with EOG res­ponses, it was seen that 5 such eyes were low EOG responders while from others normal EOG responses were recorded. The 4 subjects from who quadriceps muscles capillary basement membrane studies were done only 2 of the low FOG responders, showed thickening of capillary basement membrane.

From 18 eyes of pre-diabetics (Group III) from whom FOG responses could be recorded, 7 eyes gave low EOG ratio. Fluorescein angiographs were taken from 3 eyes and none of them had shown any vascular or retinal pigment epithelium pathology and only one of them gave low FOG response. From 2 pre-diabetics from whom quadriceps muscle capillary basement membrane thickness was studied, only one showed basement membrane thickening.

It would then be seen that from among 30% diabetic eyes with or without any retinopathic changes and in 30% of eyes of pre-diabetics low FOG responses were recorded. Ail the low FOG responders did not show angiopathic changes in their retina either by ophthalmoscopic examination or by fluorescein angiophotography. There is however some co-relation bet­ween the low EOG responders and those who showed quadriceps muscle capillary basement membrane thickening.


  Comments Top


It was observed that 30% eyes of these subjects gave low EOG response and these could not be related to the angiopathic changes in the retina. It was however seen that the low EOG responders more often showed thicken­ing of muscle capillary basement membrane. It could be summerised from this study that low EOG response from diabetics and pre-diabetics is not universal and does not depend on the angiopathic changes in the retina. The exact cause of low EOG ratio in some of the diabetics and offspring of the diabetic patients is not known. Neither the exact localisation of EOG response is fully understood. The correlation­ship of thickened basement membrane and low EOG values could not be established because of small sample and variable results.


  Acknowledgements Top


This work is based on AFMRC Project 743/7 I express my gratitude to Lt. Gen. B.D.P. Rao, Surg Rear Admiral M.S. Malhotra, Surg Rear Admiral G.J.K. Peck and Captain Kuldip Singh for making this presentation possible.

 
  References Top

1.
Das, A.B., 1972, Proceedings of All India Ophthalmic Society XXIX, 32, 114.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Das, A.B. & Basu, S.K., 1976, Proceedings of Sixth Afro-Asian Congress of Ophthalmology, Madras-1976.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Das, A.B., 1976, Invention Intelligence 11, 7, 245.  Back to cited text no. 3
    



 
 
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