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ARTICLES
Year : 1979  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 84-86

Prevalance of the lattice degeneration and of the retinal breaks


Prabha Eye Clinic, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
K R Murthy
Prabha Eye Clinic, Bangalore
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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How to cite this article:
Murthy K R. Prevalance of the lattice degeneration and of the retinal breaks . Indian J Ophthalmol 1979;27:84-6

How to cite this URL:
Murthy K R. Prevalance of the lattice degeneration and of the retinal breaks . Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1979 [cited 2020 Dec 2];27:84-6. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1979/27/4/84/32584

Surgical closure of retinal breaks resulting in the reattachment of the retina, firmly established their aetiological significance in retinal detachment. It is widely accepted that all retinal breaks do not lead to retinal detachment. Lattice degeneration occupies an important place in the causation of retinal breaks. Study of the incidence of the lattice degeneration and of the retinal breaks in eyes without retinal detachment is helpful to under­stand the problem of retinal separation. Statis­tical reports from living population about this problem in our country are not many. The present study was undertaken to note the inci­dence of these changes in our population.


  Material and Methods: Top


The Material for this study consists of 300 patients attending the out patient department for symptoms not related to the retinal pathology, selected at random. They were subjected to a detailed examination with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope including ora seriata indentation. The 3 mirror Goldman lens examination was performed whenever necessary. The findings were recorded on a drawing. The results were statistically evaluated.

Results

Of the 300 patients examined, 154 were males and 146 were females. Majority of the patients belonged to the age groups between ten and fifty years. [Figure - 1].

Lattice degeneration was found to be present in 60 cases, an overall incidence of 20%. While bilateral lesions were noted in 22, the remaining 38 cases had only one eye affected. Among those with unilateral involvement a definite predilection for the left eye was found. Equatorial distribution of the degenerative areas was noted in 8 patients and in the remaining cases the distribution was in the peripheral zone of the fundus. The temporal quadrants and the vertical meridian were affected more often than the nasal quadrants and the horizontal meridian, which had the least incidence of these lesions. [Figure - 2].

The typical appearance of cross hatch white lines was found in 11 patients. Majority of the cases showed retinal thinning, and the presence of white dots in the centre of the lesion. While few pigmented spots were frequently found within the area of degeneration, well marked pigmentation of the entire lesion or along its posterior border was found in 13 patients. Vitreoretinal adhesion was found mainly along the posterior edge of the lesion. In 10 instances marked degenerative changes in the vitreous humour were noted.

Retinal breaks were noted in 40 cases, an overall incidence of 13.3%. In 20 cases, the breaks were situated in the areas not affected by the lattice degeneration. Of these, 2 patients had lattice degeneration in the other eye, and in 6 patients areas of lattice away from the break in the same eye was seen. Twelve persons were not affected by the lattice degeneration. In twenty patients the breaks were within the area of degeneration. These were often situated at the ends of degeneration patch or at its posterior border. Study of the distribu­tion of the breaks revealed that the maximum occurance of these was in the upper temporal quadrant and the lowest in the lower nasal quadrant. [Figure - 3],[Figure - 4],[Figure - 5].

Different types of breaks met with were as follows:­Round holes 36, horse shoe 8, oval 2, irregular 2, slit Tear 1, abnormal oral fold with break 2.

Vitreo-retinal traction was consistently found with horse shoe and oval tears. Majority of the round holes were situated in the areas of lattice change and did not show any vitreo-retinal traction. However, in some of the cases there was vitreo-retinal adhesion to the posterior edge of the area of degeneration.

Six cases revealed localised retinal separation and in two of them this had been arrested as indicated by the pigment demarcation line.


  Discussion Top


The published reports of the incidence of the lattice degeneration and of the retinal breaks from the western countries have varied from 6% to 8% for the lattice degeneration and 4% to 13.73% for the retinal breaks.

In the present study the incidence of the lattice degeneration was found to be 20% and that of the retinal breaks 13.3%. It was found that the left eye had a significantly higher incidence of the lattice degeneration compared to the right eye at 5% level of significance and was non significant at 1 % level of significance. The 95% coincidence interval for the prevelance of the lattice degeneration was 19.86%-20.14%. Breaks associated with the lattice change were found to be frequent in the left eye than in the right eye. When breaks were not associated with the lattice the right eye showed a higher incidence of retinal breaks. The horizontal meridian of the fundus revealed the least inci­dence of lattice change as well as of the retinal breaks.


    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3], [Figure - 4], [Figure - 5]



 

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