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   Table of Contents      
ARTICLES
Year : 1981  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-3

The influence of posture on intraocular pressure


Department of Ophthalmology, Goa Medical College, Panaji, India

Correspondence Address:
Fatima Vaz
Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Irwin Hospital, New Delhi-110002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 7287120

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How to cite this article:
Vaz F, Gupta A K. The influence of posture on intraocular pressure. Indian J Ophthalmol 1981;29:1-3

How to cite this URL:
Vaz F, Gupta A K. The influence of posture on intraocular pressure. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1981 [cited 2020 Oct 29];29:1-3. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1981/29/1/1/30981

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Table 5

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Table 4

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Table 2

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Table 1

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Table 1

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At present Schiotz and the applanation tonometers (Goldman principle) are the most commonly used tonometers. While Schiotz tonometry is performed in the supine position, applanation tonometry is done usually in the sitting position on a slit lamp using Goldman applanation tonometer. With hand-held appla­nation tonometer and pneumo-tonometer, it is possible to measure the intraocular pressure both in the sitting as well as in the supine position. It is desirable that normal intraocular pressure is defined with reference to the posture in which the intraocular pressure is recorded.

Several authors (Galin, Mc-Ivor, & Magru­der[1], Roberts & Rogers[2], Hetland-Eriksen[3],[4] Tarkkanen & Leikola[5] and Krieglestein & Langham[6]) have reported that, in normal sub­jects, the intraocular pressure in supine position is higher than that in the seated position. There are hardly any studies available from our country on this problem.

The present study has, therefore, been undertaken to study the effect of posture on normal intraocular pressure in Indian subjects.


  Materials and methods Top


412 eyes from 206 cases were subjected to the clinical study. Patients included in this study were either completely normal or ametropic, cataractous, aphakic or with some retinal dis­ease such as diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa etc. Cases of glaucoma or ocular hypertension were not considered at this stage of the study. It was ensured that both the sexes and various age groups had proper representa­tion in the study. The intraocular pressure was recorded with Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer, first in the lying position. The patient was then made to sit and after 2 minutes interval intraocular pressure was again recorded in the sitting position. All measurements were performed by the same examiner. No head cushion was used in the supine position.


  Observations Top


The observations of the present study of applanation tonometry in sitting and supine position are summarized in [Table - 1],[Table - 2],[Table - 3],[Table - 4],[Table - 5].


  Discussion Top


The principle parameter investigated in the present series was the difference in the intra­ ocular pressure when changing from recumbent to sitting position. In the recumbent position the mean applanation intraocular pressure recorded was 14.12 mm Hg (S.D. 2.12) and 14.06 mm Hg (S.D. 2.13) in males in right and left eyes respectively. In females, the intra­ocular pressure recordings were 14.11 mm. Hg (S.D. 1.94) and 14.15 mm Hg (S.D. 1.99) in right and left eyes respectively. The mean applanation intraocular pressure in sitting position was 12.10 in right and left eyes in males with S.D, of 2.59 and 2.54 respectively.

In females the recordings were 12.29 mm Hg (S.D. 1.93) and 12.35 (S.D. 1.91) in the right and left eyes respectively.

The mean difference of intraocular pressure between the sitting and recumbent position was 2.02 mm. Hg in males and 1.82 mm. Hg in fem­ales. This difference was found to be statistically significant.

Various workers[1],[2],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] also observed higher intraocular pressure in the recumbent position. Whitty[10], however, did not observe any significant change between the intraocular pressure in sitting and supine position. Some of the workers observed that rise in supine position is more in glaucomatous eyes. We observed that the rise in intraocular pressure in recumbent position tended to be higher with increase in age. However the observation could not be confirmed statistically because of the small number of cases in each group. Jain and Marmion[8],[9] also observed greater rise of intraocular pressure in the recumbent position with the increase in age.

Various reasons have been given to explain the rise of intraocular pressure in recumbent position. Anderson and Grant11 opined that multiple factors, perhaps, are at play to induce postural changes in intraocular pressure e.g. rise in episcleral pressure and uveal vascular engorgement. Jain and Marmion[8],[9] have emphasised on baroreceptor mechanism to explain these changes.


  Summary Top


The influence of posture on intraocular pressure was studied in 412 non-glaucomatous eyes, using Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer. The mean intraocular pressure in the recumbent position was higher by 2.02 mm Hg in males and 1.82 mm Hg in females. The rise in intraocular pressure in the recumbent position tended to be higher with the increase in age.[11]

 
  References Top

1.
Galin, M.A., Mc-Ivor J. and Magruder G.B., 1963, Amer. J. Ophthalmol. 55 : 720.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Roerts. W., and Rogers. J.W., 1969, Amer. J. Ophthalmol. 57: 111.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hetland-Eriksen, J., 1966, Acta. Ophthalmol. 44: 515.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hetland-Eriksen, J., 1966, Acta. Ophthalmol. 44 : 522.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tarkkanen, A., and Leikola, J., 1967, Acta Ophthalmol. 45 : 569.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Krieglestein, G.K., and Langham, M.E., 1975, Ophthalmolcgica (Basel) 171 - 132.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Armaly, M.P., and Salamoun, S.G., 1963, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 79: 603.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jain, M.R. and Marmion, V.J., 1976, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 60 : 687.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Jain, M.R. and Marmion, V.J. 1976, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 60 : 127.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Whitty, H.P.B., 1969 Brit. J. Ophthalmol 53 664.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Anderson, D.R., and Grant, W.M., 1973, Invest. Ophthaimol. 12: 204.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4], [Table - 5]



 

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