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Year : 1982  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 371-373

Evaluation of acquired colour defects by F.M. 100 hue test

Deptt. of Ophthalmology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, India

Correspondence Address:
R G Sharma
Department of Ophthalmology, S.M.S. Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 6984695

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How to cite this article:
Sharma R G, Mishra Y C, Verma G L, Goswami U. Evaluation of acquired colour defects by F.M. 100 hue test. Indian J Ophthalmol 1982;30:371-3

How to cite this URL:
Sharma R G, Mishra Y C, Verma G L, Goswami U. Evaluation of acquired colour defects by F.M. 100 hue test. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1982 [cited 2023 Feb 1];30:371-3. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1982/30/4/371/29475

A battery of tests have been designed to furnish information about various congenital colour defects but most of the tests are com­plex and often give conflicting results. Further some tests are specially task oriented and some are used for screening purposes to differentiate normal from abnormals. Yet the tests to differentiate congenital colour defects are very much lacking.

In the present study our endeavour has been to assess the officacy and clinical usefulness of F.M. 100 Hue test in detection of colour defects frequently encountered in various ocular and systemic diseases.

  Materials and methods Top

31 cases of various fundus lesions were subjected for evaluation of colour defects on F.M. 100 Hue test and Ishihara test 15 normal individuals were also subjected for F.M. 100 Hue so as to obtain normal scoring pattern. Cases of following fundus lesions were subjec­ted for colour value evaluation :­

Group A- Macular lesions: 5 cases, 3 heredo macular degeneration and 2 non speci­fic macular degeneration).

Group B- Tapeto-retinal degeneration­5 cases

Group C-Amblyopia ex anopsia-5 cases Group D-Optic nerve lesions-6 cases, 3 primary optic atrophy, 2 post neuritic optic atrophy I Retrobulbar neuritis.

Group E-Chorio retinitis-5 cases

Group F-Diabetic Retinopathy-5 cases

None of the eyes tested had visual acuity less than 6/60. The state of colour vision in each eye was recorded with the help of pseudo isochromatic plates of Ishihara and subsequen­tly F.M. 100 Hue test was applied. These colour vision examination were done in natural day light with normal pupil.

  F.M. 100 HUE TEST Top

It is a Hue discrimination test comprising of 5 wooden cases with a total of 93 plastic caps on which different coloures are mounted. Each wooden cases consists of 2 hinged panels with enclosed 21 or 22 numbered colour caps which are removable. 2 caps are repea­ted and fixed as pilot caps at each end of the panel. The object of this test is to arrange the caps in a regular colour series between the two fixed pilot caps. The scoring sheet of F.M. 100 Hue test consist of 4 rows of num­bers and circular diagram for scoring. The order of caps is recorded in the rows of num­bers and errors of transposition identified. The score of a cap is the sum of differences between the number of that cap and the num­ber of caps adjacent to it. The inner circle of numbers 1 to 85 represents 85 colour chips which make up a full colour circle and every single chip is separated from each of its neigh­bours by a just noticabie difference in the Hue. Thus the test measures the Zones of colour defective individuals.


The person to be tested was made well con­versant with the test. Each wooden case was opened before the examinee who was then instructed to arrange the coloured caps in a regular colour series between the two pilot caps within 2 minutes (Approx.). The score of each cap was then marked accordingly on the radial lines of the scoring sheets and points were connected to each other to obtain the graphic recording of the error scores so as to know the colour spectrum effected. The F.M. 100 Hue pattern thus obtained indicate the colour zones of best and poorest perception and the degree of colour discrimination in these zones.

  Observations Top

15 normal individuals between the age groups of 25 to 47 years had an error score ranging from 12 to 72 on F.M. 100 Hue test (within the normal prescribed limit of error score up to 100).

Group A-Macular lesions; (5 cases)

Testing on pseudo isochromatic plates of Ishihara showed total colour blindness (achro­maptopsia) in 2 out of 5 cases and remaining cases showed no abnormality.

On F.M. 100 Hue test all the cases had high error scores than normal. 3 out of 5 cases had error score ranging from 300 to 394. Only 2 cases had their error scores of 126 and 253. 7 out of 10 eyes had blue green and yollow defect. The remaining 3 eyes had gene­ralised loss of Hue discrimination.

Group B-Tapete retinal degeneration

On pseudo isochrometic plates of Ishihara, 4 cases showed no abnormality and only one case showed achromatopsia. On F. M. 100 Hue test majority of patients had error score lying between 200 to 400. Patients with macular involvement had relatively higher error scores. Majority of cases showed tritan defect. Maximum errors were committed in blue green and yellow green ranges. A case of fundus albi punctus had tetarten defect.

  Amblyopia exanopsia Top

All the patients could read all the pseudo isochromatic plates of Ishihara correctly with each eye separately. On F.M. 100 Hue test, 4 cases out of 5 had their amblyopic eye error score lying between 100 to 200. Five cases had the error of 219. 4 patients had tritan and tetratan axis and only one case had poor dis­crimination of all the Hues.

  Optic nerve lesions Top

On pseudo isochromatic plates of Ishihara, only one case with retrobulbar neuritis could not read any of the plates while rest of the 5 cases did not show any abnormality. On F.M. 100 Hue test cases of primary optic atrophy had tetarten and deutan defects while cases of post neuritic optic atrophy had protan axis of defect. A case of retrobulbar neuritis had generalised less of Hue discrimination with remarkably high error score (555). Rest of other cases had error scores lying between 100 to 200. Maximum error were concentrated in red purple and blue green range of spectrum.

  Choreoretinitis Top

On pseudo isochromatic plates of Ishihara non of the cases showed any abnormality.

On F.M. 100 Hue test the error scores ranged between 100 to 300. Maximum errors were committed in red-purple, blue and blue­green range of spectrum.

  Discussion Top

Grutzner[1] suggested that the anomalesope method and most of the pseudo isochromatic plates are inadequate for detection of tritano­malies as observed in various retinal diseases. Pseudo isochrometic plates of Ishihara are of little value for assessment of acquired colour defects both quantitatively and qualitatively. Only 4 cases out of 31 showed an abnormality and that too of achromatopsia. The profile of F.M. 100 Hue test is characteristic for a parti­cular disease pattern and a precise information regarding the colour spectrum involved can be obtained.

Fishman[2] reported defect of red receptor in inflammatory lesions of macular whereas the degenerative lesions produced blue-green defects. However, in our patients protan axis was also found in one eye of a case of here­domacular degeneration. Francois and Varriest[3] reported tritanopic defects in cases of tapeto retinal degeneration. Our results in this series showed tritan as well as deutan and tatartan axis of defects.

Although colour sense of an amblyopic eye is generally normal as suggested by Francois and Varriest but dyschromatopsia for blue has been reported. Even achromatopsia with amblyopia has been reported by Auerbach and Kriplee[4]. In our patients 4 out of 5 cases had their errors concentrated mainly around tritan axis. None of the patients had achromatopsia.

In patients with postneuritic optic atrophy errors were concentrated around red-purple and blue-green range of spectrum. In contrast to the patients of primary optic atrophy who had tritan and tetratan defects. Similar observa­tions have been described earlier by Kelecom 5. Thus F.M. 100 Hue Test helps to differen­tiate post neuritic type of optic atrophy from primary optic atrophy where there is a tritan defect.

The results obtained from this study sup­port the fact that degenerative lesions of macula give rise to blue-green defect as com­paired to inflammatory lesions which show red­green defect. Pigmentary lesions of choroid and retina give rise to blue-green and yellow­green defect with a tendency to shift towards red-purple range in cases where macula is also effected. In general patients with amblyopia exanopsia had only minor colour vision abnor­mality for blue ranged spectrum. Lesions involving conducting pathways i.e. lesions of optic nerve head lead to deterioration of red­green discrimination. Metabolic diseases like diabetic retinopathy produce blue-green and yellow-green defect. Acquired blue-yellow deficiencies are encountered in degeneration of photo receptors of the peripheral retina (Tape­to-retinal degeneration).

F.M. 100 Hue test, though time consuming, it provides both qualitative and quantitative information indicating by how much and in what manner the patient's colour vision de­parts from normal.[5]

  References Top

Crutzner, 1961, Albrecht, V. Fraefes Arch. Ophthalmol 163, 99.  Back to cited text no. 1
Fishman G., 1971, Sur. Ophthalmol. 15: 370  Back to cited text no. 2
Francosis, J and Varriest, G., 1961, Vis. Res.1:201.  Back to cited text no. 3
Auerbach, E. and Rriplee, B., 1974, Decum. Ophthalmol 37: 119.  Back to cited text no. 4
Kelecom, J., 1963: Arch. Ophthalmol. (Paris) 23:15.  Back to cited text no. 5


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