|Year : 1983 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 35-36
C Mangaiah Sarma
Department of Ophthalmology, Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, India
C Mangaiah Sarma
Professor of Ophthalmology Medical College, Kurnool
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Sarma C M. Human cyclopia. Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:35-6
Cyclopia is an anomaly consisting of a single central orbital fossa with a complete or partial fusion of the two eyes along with the absence of a nose or a rudimentary nose situated above the eye and associated abnormalities of brain and the other systems. It occurs in almost all the species of mammals and is most frequent in ayes, fishes etc. Reports of this anomaly from India are few ,,. Because of the rarity of this anomaly, the present case is being reported.
| Case report|| |
Mrs. D.B., 25 years, was admitted with labour pains. She was a second para and the first was a full term normal delivery the child being normal in all respects. At the time of admission, the patient was in pre-eclamspsia. There was oedema of the feet and abdominal wall. Blood pressure was 150 100mm Hg. Foetal heart sounds could not be heard because of the oedema of the abdominal wall. Foetal parts were not clearly palpable.
There was no history of any specific infection, drug intake, radiation or bleeding during the present pregnancy. History of consanguinity present. The patient delivered a full term, still born child two hours after admission.
The foetus was a full term one. It had well developed extremities, trunkk and external genetalia.
There was single orbital cavity. The orbit was diamond shaped. There were four rudimentary eye lids. Few eye lashes were present in all the lids. Conjunctival fornices were present. There were no puncta and no lacrimal sacs. There was a single globe with one cornea, one iris, one pupil one lens one retina and one sclera. There was conjunctival encroach ment over the cornea all round. The cornea was elliptical in shape. There was a centrally situated pupil. Iris was brown in colour. Anterior chamber was well formed and the lens was clear. The media were clear and there was only one optic disc which was visible clearly with ophthalmoscope.
There were two lacrimal glands which were rudimentary. One set of all extrinsic muscles were present, but they were not well developed. There was a fused single orbital cavity with a single optic foremen.
There was no nose. Just above the central eye, there was a tubular and pendular mass 22mm in length and 10mm in diametre. The free and of this mass showed a single nostril like opening I mm in diameter. The tubular mass was patent throughout its whole length but it did not communicate with the lungs.
Scals bones were normal. Brain matter could not be differentiated into hemispheres. There were no gyri and sulci. The anterior part of the cerebrum was well developed. There was single potic nerve. Olfactory bulbs and tracts were absent. All other cranial nerves were present but rudimentary. Pituatary could not be located. Thyroid, adrenals and other endocrinal glands were normal.
The limbs, feet, thorax, abdomen, and external genitalia were normal and their internal anatomy was normal.
| Discussion|| |
Cyclopia has been of much interest because it presents a striking deviation from the normal mode of human development. It is frequently observed in lower forms of life. It is a congenital anomaly but it is not hereditary. Usually the child is born dead or dies soon after birth.
There are different views expressed in literature about the causation of this anomaly. From experimental and comparative studies, it is now clear that the deficient part of a cyclopic embryo can be traced to a wadge shaped defect in the anterior end of the forebrain and adjacent mesoderm at a very early presomite or even prenuclear stage of development (4). This defect is the result of the failure of primary head or organiser to exert its inductive influence on the neighbouring ectoderm and mesoderm. The exact cause of failure of primary organiser is not known. It may be drug induced or a genetically determined defect.
| Summary|| |
A case of cyclopia is reported because of its rarity.
| References|| |
Das Gupta, S., 1974 Ind. J. Ophthalmol, 22, II, 27-31.
Gupta, R.C., Gupta, V.D., snd Suresh Gupta, 1981, Ind. J. Ophthalmol, 29, II, 121-123.
Leela Joshi, 1974, The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaeaology of India, XXII, 1, 89-92.
Wills. R.A. 1962, The Borderland of Embryology and Pathology-Butterworth and co., Ltd-London.
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