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Year : 1984  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 269-271

A profile of penetrating eye injuries

Department of Ophthalmology, Goa Medical College, Panaji, India

Correspondence Address:
J S Saini
Department of Ophthalmology, Goa Medical College, Panaji-403 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 6545301

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How to cite this article:
Mukherjee A K, Saini J S, Dabral S M. A profile of penetrating eye injuries. Indian J Ophthalmol 1984;32:269-71

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Mukherjee A K, Saini J S, Dabral S M. A profile of penetrating eye injuries. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1984 [cited 2022 May 17];32:269-71. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1984/32/5/269/27489

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Traumatic injuries of eyes are increasingly becoming a common cause of permanent and yet avoidable cause ofblindness. [1],[2],[3] Penetrat­ing ocular injuries in particular carry in high risk of visual morbidity in all age groups[4],[5],[6]. Eye injuries are thus causing concern to Ophthalmologist both in the developed and developing countries.[7],[8],[9]

In this communication we bring attention to the profile of penetrating injuries of eye as seen in a fast developing coastal part of India.

  Methods and matarials and observation Top

82 patients varying in age group from 5 yrs to 62 years were hospitalized with penetrating ocular injuries at Goa Medical College and formed the subjects of this study. Majority of these were males (60 cases, 73.17%). 37 patients (44.91%) were less than 30 years of age [Figure - 1]. All patients had uniocular injury and the involvement of ocular structures is listed in [Table - 1][Table - 2]. Site of perforation was corneal in 51 cases (62.21%), Corneoscleral in 24 cases (29.26%) and scleral in 7 cases (8.53%). Con­comitant injuries were seen as:-lid injury in 26 cases (31.80%), lacrimal Apparatus injuries in 8 cases (9.86%), Conjunctival tears in 38 cases (46.34%), Iris injuries in 30 eyes (36.5%), Ciliary body 20 cases (24.40%), lens in 46 cases (56.10%). 32 eyes (39.02%) showed hyphema following injury. Posterior segment damage in the form of macular oedema, macular degeneration and retinal damage was seen in 28 cases (34.14%).

The source of ocular injury is shown in [Figure - 2]. The occupation of these patients is shown in [Figure - 3].

Associated injuries to other parts of the body were present in 22 cases (26.83%) as lis­ted in [Table - 3].

  Discussion Top

Many reports on ocular trauma in Ophthalmology literature are available par­ticularly concerning penetrating injuries.[3],[7] injuries in children,[4] or adults and injuries characteristic of a particular environment.[9] Most of these reports are published from the developed industrial nations. Since many eye injuries are related to particular occupations and cultures, the type of injuries in developing countries are not necessarily similar.

Analysis of 82 patients hospitalised for penetrating eye injuries shows that males are more often afflicted at all age groups. This is in conformity with many other reports. 44.9% of our patients were under 20 yrs of age emphasising the vulnerability of younger age as has also been reported by other authors.[8]

In these cases injuries mainly penetrated the exposed cornea. Indirect injuries resulting in scleral perforations were uncommon. Con­comitant injuries in the eye were lacerations of lid (26 cases), lacrimal canalicular injuries (8 cases), conjunctival tears (38 cases), Iris tears (30 cases), ciliary body injury (20 cases), lens injury (46 cases), posterior segment damage (28 cases) and hyphaema (32 cases). Primary endophthalmitis was seen in 11 cases due to infection and long delay in seeking medical care. As many as (26 cases) (34.6%) had more than 1/2 diameter of corneal rupture indicating the severity of injury in many of our cases.

Metallic injuries (33%) were commonest reflecting the high incidence of industrial accidents in this rapidly developing coastal belt. Wooden particles caused eye injury in 23.18% of cases to those mainly involved in forest/Agricultural activity. In 12.10% of cases glass caused injury following road accidents, bursting of carborated bottles and alcoholic drinks bottles. Due to mining activity quite a few (14.71%) injuries were due to stones. 17.01 of injuries resulted from various other reasons like blasts, car battery explosion, ropes, fish hooks, sea shells and animal horn.

Eye trauma occurs fairly frequently in developing countries and constitutes a major health problem. Efforts to prevent ocular injuries should particularly be directed towards improving established domestic habits such as chopping and gathering wood, enforcing industrial safeguards for running machinery and making safe products like car­borated bottles and car batteries. The necessity of seeking professional medical help soon after the injury and the danger of delaying treatment should be stressed.

  Summary Top

A profile of eye injuries around Panaji (Goa) is presented.

  References Top

Maltzman B.A., Pruzen and Mund M.L,1976. Surv Ophthalmol. 21: 285  Back to cited text no. 1
Niiranen M., 1978. Acta Ophthalmol (Khb), 135 (Suppl); 1  Back to cited text no. 2
Warmer S., 1952. Acta Ophthalmol (Khb), 38: 97  Back to cited text no. 3
Glees M. and Kleinhaus XI., 1962. Klin Monast fur Augengeil 141: 287  Back to cited text no. 4
Niiranen M. and Raivis 1.,1981. Brit J. Ophthalmol, 65: 436  Back to cited text no. 5
Eagling E.M., 1976. Brit. J. Ophthalmol 60: 732  Back to cited text no. 6
Ibsar M.. Chirambe M. and Belkin M.. 1982. Brit J. Ophthalmol 66: 145.  Back to cited text no. 7
Venkataswamy G.. 1968. National Symposium on Injuries of the Eye, Ahmedabad, p 38  Back to cited text no. 8
Nair S.K and Chundawat M.S., 1978. East Arch. Ophthalmol 6: 80.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3]

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Clinical analysis of 124 patients with penetrating ocular injuries in Hyderabad Pakistan
Narsani, A.K., Dabir, S.A., Gul, S., Jatoi, S.M., Khanzada, M.A., Kumar, M.
International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008; 8(11): 2164-2166
2 Open globe injuries in the pediatric population in Qatar
Kanaan, A., Singh, R., Alsayrafi, M., Mujahid, A.
Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Acute Care. 2008; 8(3): 167-172
3 Paediatric Open Globe Injuries. Visual Outcome and Risk Factors for Endophthalmitis
Narang, S., Gupta, V., Simalandhi, P., Gupta, A., Raj, S., Dogra, M.R.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2004; 52(1): 29-34


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