|Year : 1985 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 113-114
A Joseph, Alex Joseph
Sree Chitra Tirunal institution, Trivandrum, India
Sree Chitra Tirunal institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Joseph A, Joseph A. Ocular thelaziasis. Indian J Ophthalmol 1985;33:113-4
During the last decade several cases of nematode infestation of the eye have been reported from Kerala,,, (India).
Worms of the family Thelaziidae are generally parasitic on dogs, cats, monkeys etc., and their best preferred site in the adult stage is in the conjunctival sac of the natural host. Ocular manifestations due to Thelazia in men are, rare, and there are only very few reports. From the available references, it is noted that only one case has been reported from India. The present paper deals with the infestation of the eye due to Thelazia callipaeda in a woman.
| Case report|| |
A Hindu female aged 34 years worker in forest in Kerala, reported with complaints of irritation, redness, foreign body sensation and watering in the left eye, of one week duration.
On examination L. E. vision was 6/6, with localised congestion in the outer and upper part of the conjunctiva. Fundus was normal. On eversion of the upper eye lid two motile worms were seen in the upper part of the upper fornix.
Xylocaine 4% drops were instilled. The upper eyelid, was double everted with lid retractor and the two worms were removed with suture tying forceps. The spot showed small pustules. Framycetin ointment, was applied during post operative days. Post operative period was uneventful. The right eye was normal.
The extracted worms, both mature males belong to the family Thelaziidae. Genus Thelazia and species callipaeda. The bigger one is 13 mm in length and 0.5 mm in thickness at the middle, and resembled white sewing thread. The whole cuticle is marked by transverse striations which are more pronounced at the anterior end. The head bears four pairs of papillae. The triangular mouth is surrounded by six papillae. The posterior end of the male is sharply re-curved and carries many pairs of papillae, caudal alae and spicules, [Figure - 1]A, B,C.
| Discussion|| |
The exact life cycle of Thelazia has not yet been worked out and there are several speculations about the mode of transmission and vectors. The adults are normally parasites on the conjunctival sac and canthus of the eye of animals, generally dogs and rabbits in India. They damage the tissues of the eye, especially the conjunctiva which becomes scarified, fibrous and provoke excessive secretion of lacrimal fluid. Some hosts experience very severe pain due to the active movement of the worms within the eye. In animals Thelazia infections are noticed in both eyes but in humans only unilateral infections were observed so far. In the same eye both adult male and female worms were found, previously. The female worm recovered by Friedmann was gravid, and uterus was full of embryos.
These suggest that Thelazia can undergo life cycle in man, the accidental host, as well.
There are nearly 15 reports of the incidence of T. callipaeda in man and less than a dozen reports about, T, californiensis a closely allied species, All reports reveal that the parasites do not cause severe damage to the eye. Thelazia infection in animals especially dogs is not uncommon but very rare in man. Hence it is definitely a zoonotic disease and man becomes the occasional host.
| Summary|| |
This is a case report of Thelaziasis due to T. callipaeda in the left eye of a 34 year old woman, and the morphology of the extracted worms, have been documented.
| Acknowledgement|| |
We are indebted to the Director, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta for confirming' the identification of the parasites sent by us.
| References|| |
Joseph, A. George Thomas, P, and Subramaniam, K.S, 1977, Ind J. Ophthalmol. 24 : 20.
Joseph, A and Raju, N.S.D., 1980, Ind, J. Ophthalmol. 28 :89.
Joseph, A , 1980, Kerale. Med. Jour. 21 : 109.
Mohan George and Cyriace Curien, 1978, Jr.Ind. Med. Assoc. 77 :123.
Martin Friedmann, 1948, Antiseptic 45, 9 : 123.
[Figure - 1]