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Year : 1985  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 95-97

A profile of penetrating eye injuries

Department of Ophthalmology, Goa Medical College, Panaji, India

Correspondence Address:
J S Saini
Department of Ophthalmology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh-12
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 3833743

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How to cite this article:
Saini J S, Mukherjee A K, Dabral S M, Moraes O. A profile of penetrating eye injuries. Indian J Ophthalmol 1985;33:95-7

How to cite this URL:
Saini J S, Mukherjee A K, Dabral S M, Moraes O. A profile of penetrating eye injuries. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1985 [cited 2022 Nov 28];33:95-7. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1985/33/2/95/30829

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Table 1

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Ocular injuries are increasingly becoming cause of permanent and yet avoidable cause of blindness[1],[2],[3]. Perforating ocular injuries in particular. carry a high risk of visual mor­bidity in all age groups[4],[5],[6]. Eye injuries are causing concern to Ophthalmologist both in the developed and developing countries[7],[8],[9]. In this Communication, authors bring atten­tion to the profile of penetrating injuries of eye as seen in a fast developing coastal part of India.

  Observations Top

54 patients, varying in age group from 5 years to 62 years were hospitalized with pene­trating ocular injuries. Majority of these were males (81-48%). 26 patients (48.14%) were less than 20 years of age. All patients had unicecular injury and the involvement of ocular structures is listed in [Table - 1]. Site of perforation was corneal in 36 cases (66.66%) Corneo-scleral in 15 cases (27.77%) and scle­ral in 3 cases (5.55%). Concomitant injuries occurred to lids in 13 cases (24.09%), lacrimal apparatus in I case (1.85%), Conjunctiva 23 cases 42.59%), Iris 27 cases (50%), ciliary body 12 cases (22.22%), lens in 28 cases (51.85%). 18 eyes showed hyphema following injury (32.33%). Posterior segment damage in the form of macular oedema, choroidal tear and retinal (detachment) was seen in 20 cases (37.03).

Complete corneal rupture was seen in 6 cases (11.11 %) while another 6 cases (11 .11 %) and corneal tear involving 2/3rd of the cor­nea. 39 cases (72.22%) has half diameter or less extent of corneal involvement. [Table - 2].

Commonest cause of ocular injury were metallic objects (25.92%), followed by wood­en splinters in 13 cases (24.09%). Glass in 9 cases (16.66%) and stone in the form of chips or a fall over stones in 7 cases (12.96%) Miscellaneous objects consisting of gun pow­der blast, shell chips (fisheries) were the cause of penetrating ocular injuries in 11 cases (10.37%).

Associated injuries to other parts of the body were present in 16 cases (29.62%) [Table - 3].

  Discussion Top

Many reports on ocular trauma in Ophthalmology literature, are available particularly concerning penetrating injuries[3],[7] injuries in children[4] or adults and injuries characteristic of a particular environment[9]. Most of these reports are published from the developed industrial nations. Since many eye injuries are related to particular occupations and cultures, the types of injuries in develop­ing countries are not necessarily similar.

Analysis of patients hospitalised for pene­trating eye injuries shows that males are more often afflicted at all age groups. This is in conformity with many other reports. 48.14% of patients were under 20 years of age emphasising the vulnerability of younger age as has also been reported by other authors[8].

In 36 eyes (66.60%) cornea had ruptured while in another 15 eyes (27.75) cornea-scleral rupture had occurred and only in 3 eyes (5.55 %) scleral rupture was seen. It reflects that in our cases, thus injuries mainly penetrated the exposed cornea Indirect injuries resulting in scleral perforations were uncommon.

Concomitant injuries in the eye were lace­rations of lid (13 cases) lacrimal canalicular injuries (1 case). conjunctival tears (23 cases), Iris tears (27 cases) ciliary body injury (12 cases), lens injury (28 cases posterior segment damage (20 cases) and hyphaema (18 cases) Primary endophthalmitis was seen in 8 cases due to infection and long delay in seeking medical care. As many as 6-.6% of cases had perforations of cornea involving 1 /2 or more diameter of the cornea indicating the severity of injury in majority of cases.

Metallic injuries (25.92%) were common­est reflecting the high incidence of industrial accidents in this rapidly developing coastal belt. Wooden particles caused eye injury in 24.09% of cases to those mainly involved in forest activity. In 16.66% of cases glass caused injury following road accidents, bursting of carbonated bottles and alcoholic drinks bottles. Due to mining activity quite a few (12.96%) injuries were due to stones. 20.37% of injuries resulted from various other reasons like blasts, car battery explo­sion, reaps, fish hook, sea shells and animal horn.

Eye trauma occurs fairly frequently in developing countries and constitutes a major health problem. Efforts to prevent ocular injuries should particularly be directed to­wards improving established domestic habits such as chopping and gathering wood, enfor­cing industrial safeguards for running machi­nery and making safe products like carbonated bottles and car batteries. The necessity of see­king professional medical help soon after the injury and the danger of delaying treatment should be stressed, A campaign of this kind however, is difficult to conduct in countries where schooling is not universal and funds are severely limited. However, pooling of resources by all concerned agencies can mount an effective mass movement to edu­cate the public.

  Summary Top

Among 54 patients with penetrating eyes injuries as many as 81.4% were males and majority (48 14%) belonged to age group less than 20 years. Sources of injury included metal (25.92%), wood splinters (24.07%), Glass (16.66%), stone (12.96%) add others (20.37 %) including gunpowder shell chips, Fish hooks and rope. This communication is an attempt to present a profile of penetrating eyes injuries in a representative coastal region.

  References Top

Maltzman, B. A. Pruzon, H, Mund, M.L, 1976, Survey Ophthalmol. 21 : 285.  Back to cited text no. 1
Niranen M., 1978, Acta Opbthalmol (Kbh) 135 (suppl) 1  Back to cited text no. 2
Wermer, S. 1952, Acta Ophthalmol (Kbh) 30: 67.  Back to cited text no. 3
Glees, M. and Kleinhaus, K. I.. 1962, Klinische Monastsblatter fur Augengeilblinde 141 : 287.  Back to cited text no. 4
Niranen, M and Raivie, I, 1981, Brit J. Ophthal­mol 65 : 436.  Back to cited text no. 5
Eagling, E.M, 1976, Brit J. Ophthalmol 60 : 732.  Back to cited text no. 6
ILsar, M. Chirambe, M, Belkin, M, 1982, Brit J. Ophthalmol 66: 145.  Back to cited text no. 7
Venkaswamy, G, 1968, National Symposium on injuries of the eye Ahmedabad p. 38  Back to cited text no. 8
Nair S. K and Chundawat M.S. 1978, East Arch Ophthalmol, 6 :80.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3]


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